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Healthy behavioral choices and cancer screening in persons living with HIV/AIDS are different by sex and years since HIV diagnosis

  • Akemi T. Wijayabahu
  • Zhi Zhou
  • Robert L. Cook
  • Babette Brumback
  • Nicole Ennis
  • Lusine YaghjyanEmail author
Original Paper
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

The prevalence of non-AIDS-related malignancies is on the rise among people aging with HIV population, but the evidence on healthy behaviors including cancer screening practices in this population subgroup is extremely limited. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of healthy behaviors and sex-specific cancer screening among persons living with HIV, by sex and time since HIV diagnosis.

Methods

We included 517 persons living with HIV from the Florida Cohort. Data were obtained from the baseline and follow-up questionnaires, electronic medical records, and Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System. The prevalence of self-reported, age-appropriate cancer screening (anal, colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical), and healthy behaviors (sustaining healthy body weight, refraining from smoking and alcohol and engaging in physical activity) was compared by sex and years since HIV diagnosis (≤ 13 vs. > 13 years).

Results

In the analyses by sex, females were more likely to be obese than males (56.5% vs. 22.2%, p < 0.0001). Distribution of healthy behaviors did not differ by time since diagnosis among males and females. In the analysis of age-appropriate screening among males, 64.8% never had an anal Pap-smear, 36.2% never had a colonoscopy, and 38.9% never had prostate cancer screening. In the analysis of age-appropriate screening among females, 50.0% never had an anal Pap-smear, 46.5% never had a colonoscopy, 7.9% never had a cervical Pap-smear, and 12.7% never had a mammogram. The difference in anal Pap-smear by sex was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Among males, the age-adjusted prevalence of never having a colonoscopy was higher in those who had HIV for ≤ 13 years (50.8% vs. 30.6%, p = 0.03).

Conclusion

The prevalence of selected healthy behaviors and cancer screening differed by sex and/or years since HIV diagnosis suggesting a need for tailored cancer prevention efforts among persons living with HIV via long-term sex-specific interventions.

Keywords

Cancer screening Healthy behaviors HIV/AIDS 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by NIAAA (Grant No. U24 AA022002 and U24AA020003), and from the State of Florida via the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Institute for AIDS and Emerging Infectious Diseases. The Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System data were provided from the HIV data center, Infectious Disease Surveillance Division, Florida Department of Health.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

This study was approved by the University of Florida, Florida International University, and the Florida Department of Health Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). All participants provided written informed consent.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health and Health Professions, College of MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health and Health Professions and College of MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health Professions and College of MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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