Body size and dietary risk factors for aggressive prostate cancer: a case–control study

  • Mikaela PalEmail author
  • Allison M. Hodge
  • Nathan Papa
  • Robert J. MacInnis
  • Julie K. Bassett
  • Damien Bolton
  • Ian D. Davis
  • Jeremy Millar
  • Dallas R. English
  • John L. Hopper
  • Gianluca Severi
  • Melissa C. Southey
  • Roger L. Milne
  • Graham G. Giles
Original Paper



Diet and body size may affect the risk of aggressive prostate cancer (APC), but current evidence is inconclusive.


A case–control study was conducted in men under 75 years of age recruited from urology practices in Victoria, Australia; 1,254 with APC and 818 controls for whom the presence of prostate cancer had been excluded by biopsy. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression estimated odds ratios and confidence intervals for hypothesized risk factors, adjusting for age, family history of prostate cancer, country of birth, socioeconomic status, smoking, and other dietary factors.


Positive associations with APC (odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals, highest vs. lowest category or quintile) were observed for body mass index (1.34, 1.02–1.78, Ptrend = 0.04), and trouser size (1.54, 1.17–2.04, Ptrend = 0.001). Intakes of milk and all dairy products were inversely associated with APC risk (0.71, 9.53–0.96, Ptrend = 0.05, and 0.64, 0.48–0.87, Ptrend = 0.012, respectively), but there was little evidence of an association with other dietary variables (Ptrend > 0.05).


We confirmed previous evidence for a positive association between body size and risk of APC, and suggest that consumption of dairy products, and milk more specifically, is inversely associated with risk.


Aggressive prostate cancer Body mass index Diet Nutrition Case–control study 



This study was funded by National Health and Medicine Research Council (NHMRC) project grant #623204 and ethical approval was granted by the Cancer Council Victoria Human Research Ethics Committee (#910). IDD is supported by an NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship (Grant No. APP1102604). MCS is supported by an NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship (Grant No. APP1155163).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

NP is currently employed by Janssen-Cilag Pty Ltd. The company had no role in producing this manuscript.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee (Cancer Council Victoria Human Research Ethics Committee, #910) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Karolinska InstituteStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Cancer Epidemiology DivisionCancer Council VictoriaMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global HealthUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Surgery, Austin HealthThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.Olivia Newton-John Cancer and Wellness Centre, Austin HealthHeidelbergAustralia
  6. 6.Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  7. 7.Eastern HealthBox HillAustralia
  8. 8.Alfred Health Radiation OncologyAlfred HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  9. 9.Department of Surgery, Central Clinical SchoolMonash University, The Alfred CentreMelbourneAustralia
  10. 10.Centre de Recherche en Épidémiologie et Santé des Populations (CESP, Inserm U1018), Facultés de MédecineUniversité Paris-Saclay, UPS UVSQ, Gustave RoussyVillejuifFrance
  11. 11.Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash HealthMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  12. 12.Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Clinical PathologyUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

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