Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 30, Issue 12, pp 1277–1282 | Cite as

Racial disparities of liver cancer mortality in Wisconsin

  • Amin BemanianEmail author
  • Laura D. Cassidy
  • Raphael Fraser
  • Purushottam W. Laud
  • Kia Saeian
  • Kirsten M. M. Beyer
Brief Report



To calculate tract-level estimates of liver cancer mortality in Wisconsin and identify relationships with racial and socioeconomic variables.


County-level standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of liver cancer in Wisconsin were calculated using traditional indirect adjustment methods for cases from 2003 to 2012. Tract-level SMRs were calculated using adaptive spatial filtering (ASF). The tract-level SMRs were checked for correlations to a socioeconomic advantage index (SEA) and percent racial composition. Non-spatial and spatial regression analyses with tract-level SMR as the outcome were conducted.


County-level SMR estimates were shown to mask much of the variance within counties across their tracts. Liver cancer mortality was strongly correlated with the percent of Black residents in a census tract and moderately associated with SEA. In the multivariate spatially-adjusted regression analysis, only Percent Black composition remained significantly associated with an increased liver cancer SMR.


Using ASF, we developed a high-resolution map of liver cancer mortality in Wisconsin. This map provided details on the distribution of liver cancer that were inaccessible in the county-level map. These tract-level estimates were associated with several racial and socioeconomic variables.


Liver cancer Race Disparities Cancer mapping Cancer epidemiology 



The research was financially supported by a TL1 grant from the Clinical & Translation Science Institute of Southeastern Wisconsin (5TL1TR001437-03) and a fellowship from the National Cancer Institute (F30-CA-216947).

Supplementary material

10552_2019_1232_MOESM1_ESM.docx (364 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 363 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Health & EquityMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.Medical Scientist Training ProgramMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  3. 3.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

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