Advertisement

The association between sleep duration and cancer-specific mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Chelsea R. Stone
  • Tiffany R. Haig
  • Kirsten M. Fiest
  • Jessica McNeil
  • Darren R. Brenner
  • Christine M. FriedenreichEmail author
Review article

Abstract

Purpose

In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to estimate cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality among cancer survivors associated with both short (typically 5 or 6 h/night) and long (typically 9 or 10 h/night) sleep duration (versus recommendations), separately by sex, cancer site, and sampling frame.

Methods

We completed a systematic literature search in five databases and captured relevant literature published through December 2018. Two reviewers independently screened 9,823 records and 32 studies were included representing over 73,000 deaths in cancer survivors. Estimates for short and long sleep duration compared to ‘recommended’ were pooled using random-effects models.

Results

Pooled hazards ratios for short and long sleep duration for all-cancer-specific mortality were 1.03 (95% CI 1.00–1.06) and 1.09 (95% CI 1.04–1.13), respectively. In subgroup analyses by cancer site, statistically significant increased risks were found for both short and long sleep durations for lung cancer-specific mortality. These associations were maintained when stratified by sex and sampling frame. There were no statistically significant associations found between either short or long sleep duration and breast, colorectal, ovarian, or prostate cancer-specific mortality. Statistically significant increases in all-cause mortality were observed with long sleep duration in breast cancer survivors (1.38; 95% CI 1.16–1.64) with no significant associations found for colorectal or liver/pancreatic cancers.

Conclusions

We observed that long sleep duration increases cancer-specific mortality for all-cancers and lung cancers, while all-cause mortality is increased for breast cancer survivors. Limitations were found within the existing literature that need to be addressed in future studies in order to improve the understanding regarding the exact magnitude of the effect between sleep duration and site-specific mortality.

Keywords

Cancer survivorship Meta-analysis Sleep duration Mortality 

Abbreviations

CI

Confidence interval

HR

Hazard ratio

RR

Risk ratio

Notes

Acknowledgments

C.R.S. was supported by a Queen Elizabeth II Scholarship and J.M. was the recipient of Postdoctoral Fellowship Awards from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Alberta Innovates.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10552_2019_1156_MOESM1_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 29 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Jike M, Itani O, Watanabe N, Buysse DJ, Kaneita Y (2017) Long sleep duration and health outcomes: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. Sleep Med Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2017.06.011 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Itani O, Jike M, Watanabe N, Kaneita Y (2017) Short sleep duration and health outcomes: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Sleep Med 32:246–256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2016.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cappuccio FP, D’Elia L, Strazzullo P, Miller MA (2010) Sleep duration and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Sleep 33(5):585–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yin J, Jin X, Shan Z, Li S, Huang H, Li P, Peng X, Peng Z, Yu K, Bao W, Yang W, Chen X, Liu L (2017) Relationship of sleep duration with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Am Heart Assoc 6(9):e005947.  https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.005947 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gallicchio L, Kalesan B (2009) Sleep duration and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sleep Res 18(2):148–158.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00732.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shan Z, Ma H, Xie M, Yan P, Guo Y, Bao W, Rong Y, Jackson CL, Hu FB, Liu L (2015) Sleep duration and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Care 38(3):529–537.  https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-2073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cappuccio FP, Cooper D, D’Elia L, Strazzullo P, Miller MA (2011) Sleep duration predicts cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur Heart J 32(12):1484–1492.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehr007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Antic D, Milic N, Todorovic M, Bila J, Andjelic B, Djurasinovic V, Sretenovic A, Vukovic V, Jelicic J, Nikolovski S, Mihaljevic B (2016) OC-07-Decoding risk for thromboembolic events in lymphoma patients. Thromb Res 140(Suppl 1):S171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhao H, Yin JY, Yang WS, Qin Q, Li TT, Shi Y, Deng Q, Wei S, Liu L, Wang X, Nie SF (2013) Sleep duration and cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 14(12):7509–7515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ma QQ, Yao Q, Lin L, Chen GC, Yu JB (2016) Sleep duration and total cancer mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Sleep Med 27–28:39–44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2016.06.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yoon HS, Yang JJ, Song M, Lee HW, Lee Y, Lee KM, Lee SA, Lee JK, Kang D (2015) Short sleep duration and its correlates among cancer survivors in Korea: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16(11):4705–4710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Irwin MR, Olmstead RE, Ganz PA, Haque R (2013) Sleep disturbance, inflammation and depression risk in cancer survivors. Brain Behav Immun 30(Suppl):S58–S67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2012.05.002 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davidson JR, MacLean AW, Brundage MD, Schulze K (2002) Sleep disturbance in cancer patients. Soc Sci Med 54(9):1309–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garland SN, Johnson JA, Savard J, Gehrman P, Perlis M, Carlson L, Campbell T (2014) Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 10:1113–1124.  https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S47790 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wong JY, Bassig BA, Vermeulen R, Hu W, Ning B, Seow WJ, Ji BT, Downward GS, Katki HA, Barone-Adesi F, Rothman N, Chapman RS, Lan Q (2017) Sleep duration across the adult lifecourse and risk of lung cancer mortality: a cohort study in Xuanwei, China. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 10(6):327–336.  https://doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-16-0295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marinac CR, Nelson SH, Flatt SW, Natarajan L, Pierce JP, Patterson RE (2017) Sleep duration and breast cancer prognosis: perspectives from the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 162(3):581–589.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-017-4140-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Trudel-Fitzgerald C, Zhou ES, Poole EM, Zhang X, Michels KB, Eliassen AH, Chen WY, Holmes MD, Tworoger SS, Schernhammer ES (2017) Sleep and survival among women with breast cancer: 30 years of follow-up within the Nurses’ Health Study. Br J Cancer 116(9):1239–1246.  https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2017.85 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Phipps AI, Bhatti P, Neuhouser ML, Chen C, Crane TE, Kroenke CH, Ochs H, Rissling M, Snively BM, Stefanick ML, Treggiari MM, Watson NF (2016) Pre-diagnostic sleep duration and sleep quality in relation to subsequent cancer survival. J Clin Sleep Med 12(4):495–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Irwin MR, Wang M, Campomayor CO, Collado-Hidalgo A, Cole S (2006) Sleep deprivation and activation of morning levels of cellular and genomic markers of inflammation. Arch Intern Med 166(16):1756–1762.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.16.1756 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Balkwill F, Mantovani A (2001) Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet 357(9255):539–545.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04046-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thun MJ, Henley SJ, Gansler T (2004) Inflammation and cancer: an epidemiological perspective. Novartis Found Symp 256:6–21 (49–52, 266–269)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Noguti J, Andersen ML, Cirelli C, Ribeiro DA (2013) Oxidative stress, cancer, and sleep deprivation: is there a logical link in this association? Sleep Breath Schlaf Atmung 17(3):905–910.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-012-0797-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blask DE (2009) Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk. Sleep Med Rev 13(4):257–264.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2008.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hakim F, Wang Y, Zhang SX, Zheng J, Yolcu ES, Carreras A, Khalyfa A, Shirwan H, Almendros I, Gozal D (2014) Fragmented sleep accelerates tumor growth and progression through recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and TLR4 signaling. Cancer Res 74(5):1329–1337.  https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.can-13-3014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Soucise A, Vaughn C, Thompson CL, Millen AE, Freudenheim JL, Wactawski-Wende J, Phipps AI, Hale L, Qi L, Ochs-Balcom HM (2017) Sleep quality, duration, and breast cancer aggressiveness. Breast Cancer Res Treat 164(1):169–178.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-017-4245-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, Alessi C, Bruni O, DonCarlos L, Hazen N, Herman J, Adams Hillard PJ, Katz ES, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Neubauer DN, O’Donnell AE, Ohayon M, Peever J, Rawding R, Sachdeva RC, Setters B, Vitiello MV, Ware JC (2015) National Sleep Foundation’s updated sleep duration recommendations: final report. Sleep Health 1(4):233–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2015.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wells GSB, O’Connell D et al (2014) The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp. Accessed Oct 1 2017
  28. 28.
    DerSimonian R, Laird N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7(3):177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG (2002) Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 21(11):1539–1558.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.1186 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 327(7414):557–560.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Begg CB, Mazumdar M (1994) Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 50(4):1088–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 315(7109):629–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Amagai Y, Ishikawa S, Gotoh T, Doi Y, Kayaba K, Nakamura Y, Kajii E (2004) Sleep duration and mortality in Japan: the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study. J Epidemiol 14(4):124–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bai Y, Li X, Wang K, Chen S, Wang S, Chen Z, Wu X, Fu W, Wei S, Yuan J, Yao P, Miao X, Zhang X, He M, Yang H, Wu T, Guo H (2016) Association of shift-work, daytime napping, and nighttime sleep with cancer incidence and cancer-caused mortality in Dongfeng-tongji cohort study. Ann Med 48(8):641–651.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2016.1217037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bellavia A, Akerstedt T, Bottai M, Wolk A, Orsini N (2014) Sleep duration and survival percentiles across categories of physical activity. Am J Epidemiol 179(4):484–491.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwt280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cai H, Shu XO, Xiang YB, Yang G, Li H, Ji BT, Gao J, Gao YT, Zheng W (2015) Sleep duration and mortality: a prospective study of 113 138 middle-aged and elderly Chinese men and women. Sleep 38(4):529–536.  https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4564 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carter BD, Diver WR, Hildebrand JS, Patel AV, Gapstur SM (2014) Circadian disruption and fatal ovarian cancer. Am J Prev Med 46(3 Suppl 1):S34–S41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2013.10.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gapstur SM, Diver WR, Stevens VL, Carter BD, Teras LR, Jacobs EJ (2014) Work schedule, sleep duration, insomnia, and risk of fatal prostate cancer. Am J Prev Med 46(3 Suppl 1):S26–S33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2013.10.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kakizaki M, Kuriyama S, Nakaya N, Sone T, Nagai M, Sugawara Y, Hozawa A, Fukudo S, Tsuji I (2013) Long sleep duration and cause-specific mortality according to physical function and self-rated health: the Ohsaki Cohort Study. J Sleep Res 22(2):209–216.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01053.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim Y, Wilkens LR, Schembre SM, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN, Goodman MT (2013) Insufficient and excessive amounts of sleep increase the risk of premature death from cardiovascular and other diseases: the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Prev Med 57(4):377–385.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.06.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lan TY, Lan TH, Wen CP, Lin YH, Chuang YL (2007) Nighttime sleep, Chinese afternoon nap, and mortality in the elderly. Sleep 30(9):1105–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mallon L, Broman JE, Hetta J (2002) Sleep complaints predict coronary artery disease mortality in males: a 12-year follow-up study of a middle-aged Swedish population. J Intern Med 251(3):207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Markt SC, Grotta A, Nyren O, Adami HO, Mucci LA, Valdimarsdottir UA, Stattin P, Bellocco R, Lagerros YT (2015) Insufficient sleep and risk of prostate cancer in a large Swedish cohort. Sleep 38(9):1405–1410.  https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4978 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Markt SC, Flynn-Evans EE, Valdimarsdottir UA, Sigurdardottir LG, Tamimi RM, Batista JL, Haneuse S, Lockley SW, Stampfer M, Wilson KM, Czeisler CA, Rider JR, Mucci LA (2016) Sleep duration and disruption and prostate cancer risk: a 23-year prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 25 (2):302–308.  https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-14-1274 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Patel SR, Ayas NT, Malhotra MR, White DP, Schernhammer ES, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB (2004) A prospective study of sleep duration and mortality risk in women. Sleep 27(3):440–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rod NH, Kumari M, Lange T, Kivimaki M, Shipley M, Ferrie J (2014) The joint effect of sleep duration and disturbed sleep on cause-specific mortality: results from the Whitehall II cohort study. PLoS ONE 9(4):e91965.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091965 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smagula SF, Stone KL, Redline S, Ancoli-Israel S, Barrett-Connor E, Lane NE, Orwoll ES, Cauley JA, Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Research G (2016) Actigraphy- and polysomnography-measured sleep disturbances, inflammation, and mortality among older men. Psychosom Med 78(6):686–696.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Suzuki K, Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of C (2007) Health conditions and mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer (JACC). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 8(Suppl):25–34Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xiao Q, Keadle SK, Hollenbeck AR, Matthews CE (2014) Sleep duration and total and cause-specific mortality in a large US cohort: interrelationships with physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body mass index. Am J Epidemiol 180(10):997–1006.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwu222 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Xiao Q, Arem H, Pfeiffer R, Matthews C (2017) Prediagnosis sleep duration, napping, and mortality among colorectal cancer survivors in a large US cohort. Sleep.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsx010 Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yeo Y, Ma SH, Park SK, Chang SH, Shin HR, Kang D, Yoo KY (2013) A prospective cohort study on the relationship of sleep duration with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort study. J Prev Med Public Health 46(5):271–281.  https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.5.271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Soh AZ, Chee MWL, Yuan JM, Koh WP (2018) Sleep lengthening in late adulthood signals increased risk of mortality. Sleep.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsy005 Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kabat GC, Xue X, Kamensky V, Zaslavsky O, Stone KL, Johnson KC, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Shadyab AH, Luo J, Hale L, Qi L, Cauley JA, Brunner RL, Manson JE, Rohan TE (2018) The association of sleep duration and quality with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative. Sleep Med 50:48–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2018.05.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Akerstedt T, Ghilotti F, Grotta A, Bellavia A, Lagerros YT, Bellocco R (2017) Sleep duration, mortality and the influence of age. Eur J Epidemiol 32(10):881–891.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-017-0297-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stone KL, Ewing SK, Ancoli-Israel S, Ensrud KE, Redline S, Bauer DC, Cauley JA, Hillier TA, Cummings SR (2009) Self-reported sleep and nap habits and risk of mortality in a large cohort of older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 57(4):604–611.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02171.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dickerman BA, Markt SC, Koskenvuo M, Hublin C, Pukkala E, Mucci LA, Kaprio J (2016) Sleep disruption, chronotype, shift work, and prostate cancer risk and mortality: a 30-year prospective cohort study of Finnish twins. Cancer Causes Control 27(11):1361–1370.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-016-0815-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Khan H, Kella D, Kunutsor SK, Savonen K, Laukkanen JA (2018) Sleep duration and risk of fatal coronary heart disease, sudden cardiac death, cancer death, and all-cause mortality. Am J Med 131(12):1499–1505 e1492.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ratjen I, Schafmayer C, di Giuseppe R, Waniek S, Plachta-Danielzik S, Koch M, Burmeister G, Nothlings U, Hampe J, Schlesinger S, Lieb W (2017) Postdiagnostic physical activity, sleep duration, and TV watching and all-cause mortality among long-term colorectal cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study. BMC Cancer 17(1):701.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3697-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Palesh O, Aldridge-Gerry A, Zeitzer JM, Koopman C, Neri E, Giese-Davis J, Jo B, Kraemer H, Nouriani B, Spiegel D (2014) Actigraphy-measured sleep disruption as a predictor of survival among women with advanced breast cancer. Sleep 37(5):837–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Collins KP, Geller DA, Antoni M, Donnell DM, Tsung A, Marsh JW, Burke L, Penedo F, Terhorst L, Kamarck TW, Greene A, Buysse DJ, Steel JL (2017) Sleep duration is associated with survival in advanced cancer patients. Sleep Med 32:208–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2016.06.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Miller KD, Siegel RL, Lin CC, Mariotto AB, Kramer JL, Rowland JH, Stein KD, Alteri R, Jemal A (2016) Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin 66(4):271–289.  https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21349 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dean GE, Abu Sabbah E, Yingrengreung S, Ziegler P, Chen H, Steinbrenner LM, Dickerson SS (2015) Sleeping with the enemy: sleep and quality of life in patients with lung cancer. Cancer Nurs 38(1):60–70.  https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    da Silva AA, de Mello RG, Schaan CW, Fuchs FD, Redline S, Fuchs SC (2016) Sleep duration and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review with meta-analysis. BMJ Open 6(2):e008119.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tamakoshi A, Ohno Y, Group JS (2004) Self-reported sleep duration as a predictor of all-cause mortality: results from the JACC study, Japan. Sleep 27(1):51–54Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Grandner MA, Drummond SP (2007) Who are the long sleepers? Towards an understanding of the mortality relationship. Sleep Med Rev 11(5):341–360.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2007.03.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Patel SR, Malhotra A, Gottlieb DJ, White DP, Hu FB (2006) Correlates of long sleep duration. Sleep 29(7):881–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Magee CA, Iverson DC, Caputi P (2009) Factors associated with short and long sleep. Prev Med 49(6):461–467.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.10.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zhang X, Giovannucci EL, Wu K, Gao X, Hu F, Ogino S, Schernhammer ES, Fuchs CS, Redline S, Willett WC, Ma J (2013) Associations of self-reported sleep duration and snoring with colorectal cancer risk in men and women. Sleep 36(5):681–688.  https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.2626 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Liu TZ, Xu C, Rota M, Cai H, Zhang C, Shi MJ, Yuan RX, Weng H, Meng XY, Kwong JS, Sun X (2017) Sleep duration and risk of all-cause mortality: a flexible, non-linear, meta-regression of 40 prospective cohort studies. Sleep Med Rev 32:28–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2016.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E (1999) Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. Lancet 354(9188):1435–1439.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01376-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Marshall NS, Glozier N, Grunstein RR (2008) Is sleep duration related to obesity? A critical review of the epidemiological evidence. Sleep Med Rev 12(4):289–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2008.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Knutson KL, Spiegel K, Penev P, Van Cauter E (2007) The metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation. Sleep Med Rev 11(3):163–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2007.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Savard J, Simard S, Blanchet J, Ivers H, Morin CM (2001) Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for insomnia in the context of breast cancer. Sleep 24(5):583–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    McPhail S, Johnson S, Greenberg D, Peake M, Rous B (2015) Stage at diagnosis and early mortality from cancer in England. Br J Cancer 112(Suppl 1):S108–S115.  https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2015.49 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alberta Health ServicesHoly Cross CentreCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  3. 3.Department of Critical Care Medicine, Cumming School of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations