Predictors of breast cancer mortality among white and black women in large United States cities: an ecologic study

  • Bijou R. HuntEmail author
  • Abigail Silva
  • Derrick Lock
  • Marc Hurlbert
Original Paper



We employed a city-level ecologic analysis to assess predictors of race-specific (black and white) breast cancer mortality rates.


We used data from the National Center for Health Statistics and the US Census Bureau to calculate 2010–2014 race-specific breast cancer mortality rates (BCMR) for 47 of the largest US cities. Data on potential city-level predictors (e.g., socioeconomic factors, health care resources) of race-specific BCMR were obtained from various publicly available datasets. We constructed race-specific multivariable negative binomial regression models to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).


Predictors of the white BCMR included white/black differences in education (RR 0.95; CI 0.91–0.99), number of religious congregations (RR 0.87; CI 0.77–0.97), and number of Medicare primary care physicians (RR 1.15; CI 1.04–1.28). Predictors of the black rate included white/black differences in household income (RR 1.03; CI 1.01–1.05), number of mammography facilities (RR 1.07; CI 1.03–1.12), and mammogram use (RR 0.93; CI 0.89–0.97).


Our ecologic analysis found that predictors of breast cancer mortality differ for the black and white rate. The results of this analysis could help inform interventions at the local level.


Breast cancer Race disparities Big cities Local data 



Bijou Hunt’s work was supported by the Avon Foundation Breast Cancer Crusade (02-2015-020). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official position or policy of the National Institutes of Health or the Department of Veterans Affairs. The authors would like to acknowledge Alexandrina Balanean for providing document review and copy-editing.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bijou R. Hunt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abigail Silva
    • 2
    • 3
  • Derrick Lock
    • 4
  • Marc Hurlbert
    • 5
  1. 1.Sinai Urban Health InstituteSinai Health SystemChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Public Health SciencesLoyola University Stritch School of MedicineMaywoodUSA
  3. 3.Center of Innovation for Complex Chronic HealthcareEdward Hines Jr. VA HospitalHinesUSA
  4. 4.Chicago Medical SchoolRosalind Franklin UniversityNorth ChicagoUSA
  5. 5.Breast Cancer Research FoundationNew YorkUSA

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