Advertisement

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 29, Issue 11, pp 1039–1046 | Cite as

Colorectal cancer incidence among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites in the United States

  • Sandra Garcia
  • Sandi L. Pruitt
  • Amit G. Singal
  • Caitlin C. Murphy
Original paper
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has declined over the past two decades; however, these declines have not occurred equally in all populations. To better understand the impact of CRC among Hispanics, we examined incidence trends by age and Hispanic ethnicity.

Methods

Using data from the National Program of Cancer Registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, we estimated CRC incidence rates during the period 2001–2014, and across all 50 U.S. states. We estimated incidence rates in younger (age < 50 years) and older (age ≥ 50 years) adults by anatomic subsite and stage at diagnosis, separately for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanic Whites.

Results

CRC incidence rates declined among older (age ≥ 50 years) Whites and Hispanics, but Whites experienced a greater decline (31% vs. 27% relative decline among Hispanics). In contrast to older adults, there were continued increases in CRC incidence from 2001 to 2014 among younger (age 20–49 years) adults. The largest relative increases in incidence occurred in Hispanics aged 20–29 years (90% vs. 50% relative increase among Whites).

Conclusions

Opposing incidence trends in younger versus older Hispanics may reflect generational differences in CRC risk by birth cohort, as well as environmental exposures and lifestyle-related risk factors associated with immigration and acculturation.

Keywords

Colorectal neoplasms Population-based Hispanic Americans Incidence Registries 

Notes

Funding

This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute (P30CA142543) and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (KL2TR001103 to Dr. Murphy) at the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest or financial disclosures.

Supplementary material

10552_2018_1077_MOESM1_ESM.docx (148 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 148 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Siegel R, Desantis C, Jemal A (2014) Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014. CA: Cancer J Clin 64(2):104–117Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Murphy CC, Sandler RS, Sanoff HK, Yang YC, Lund JL, Baron JA (2017) Decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer among individuals 50 years or older after recommendations for population-based screening. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 15(6):903–909.e906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Koblinski J, Jandova J, Nfonsam V (2017) Disparities in incidence of early-and late-onset colorectal cancer between Hispanics and Whites: a 10-year SEER database study. Am J Surg.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2017.03.035 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meester RG, Doubeni CA, Lansdorp-Vogelaar I et al (2015) Colorectal cancer deaths attributable to nonuse of screening in the United States. Ann Epidemiol 25(3):208–213, e201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cronin KA, Krebs-Smith SM, Feuer EJ, Troiano RP, Ballard-Barbash R (2001) Evaluating the impact of population changes in diet, physical activity, and weight status on population risk for colon cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 12(4):305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vogelaar I, van Ballegooijen M, Schrag D et al (2006) How much can current interventions reduce colorectal cancer mortality in the U.S.? Mortality projections for scenarios of risk-factor modification, screening, and treatment. Cancer 107(7):1624–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Robbins AS, Siegel RL, Jemal A (2012) Racial disparities in stage-specific colorectal cancer mortality rates from 1985 to 2008. J Clin Oncol 30(4):401–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fedewa SA et al (2017) Colorectal cancer statistics, 2017. CA: Cancer J Clin 67(3):177–193Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lansdorp-Vogelaar I, Kuntz KM, Knudsen AB, van Ballegooijen M, Zauber AG, Jemal A (2012) Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 21(5):728–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Doubeni CA, Field TS, Buist DS et al (2007) Racial differences in tumor stage and survival for colorectal cancer in an insured population. Cancer 109(3):612–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laiyemo AO, Doubeni C, Pinsky PF et al (2010) Race and colorectal cancer disparities: health-care utilization vs different cancer susceptibilities. J Natl Cancer Inst 102(8):538–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Murphy CC, Harlan LC, Warren JL, Geiger AM (2015) Race and insurance differences in the receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy among patients with stage III colon cancer. J Clin Oncol 33(23):2530–2536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Murphy CC, Sanoff HK, Stitzenberg KB, Baron JA, Lund JL, Sandler RS (2017) Patterns of sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of stages II and III colorectal cancer patients by age: examining potential mechanisms of young-onset disease. J Cancer Epidemiol 2017:4024580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Howe HL, Wu X, Ries LA et al (2006) Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2003, featuring cancer among US Hispanic/Latino populations. Cancer 107(8):1711–1742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Siegel RL, Jemal A, Ward EM (2009) Increase in incidence of colorectal cancer among young men and women in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 18(6):1695–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bailey CE, Hu CY, You YN et al (2015) Increasing disparities in the age-related incidences of colon and rectal cancers in the United States, 1975-2010. JAMA Surg 150(1):17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Siegel RL, Fedewa SA, Anderson WF et al (2017) Colorectal cancer incidence patterns in the United States, 1974-2013. J Natl Cancer Inst.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djw322 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (www.seer.cancer.gov) Research Data (1992–2015), National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, released April 2018, based on the November 2017 submission.
  19. 19.
    Patten E (2016) The nation’s Latino population is defined by its youth. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2016/04/20/the-nations-latino-population-is-defined-by-its-youth/#fn-24238-1. Accessed 19 April 2018
  20. 20.
    Flores A (2017) How the U.S. Hispanic population is changing. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/18/how-the-u-s-hispanic-population-is-changing/. Accessed 19 April 2018
  21. 21.
    John EM, Phipps AI, Davis A, Koo J (2005) Migration history, acculturation, and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women. Cancer Epidemiol Prev Biomark 14(12):2905–2913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A (2012) Cancer statistics for hispanics/latinos, 2012. CA: Cancer J Clin 62(5):283–298Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eschbach K, Mahnken JD, Goodwin JS (2005) Neighborhood composition and incidence of cancer among Hispanics in the United States. Cancer 103(5):1036–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Control DoCPa (2017) NPCR, incidence—SEER USCS public use databases. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/npcr/public-use/index.htm. Accessed 15 February 2018
  25. 25.
    Tiwari RC, Clegg LX, Zou Z (2006) Efficient interval estimation for age-adjusted cancer rates. Stat Methods Med Res 15(6):547–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Group NRaEW. NAACCR guideline for Enhancing Hispanic/Latino identification: revised NAACCR Hispanic/Latino Identification Algorithm [NHIA v2.2.1]. In: Springfield (IL): North American Association of Central Cancer Registries September 2011Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Finder AF (2018) U.S. 2010 Census Summary File 1, Table Qt-P10 Hipsanic or Latino by Type. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_SF1_QTP10&prodType=table. Accessed 20 July 2018
  28. 28.
    Haile RW, John EM, Levine AJ et al (2012) A review of cancer in U.S. Hispanic populations. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 5(2):150–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pinheiro PS, Sherman RL, Trapido EJ et al (2009) Cancer incidence in first generation U.S. Hispanics: Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and new Latinos. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 18(8):2162–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Klabunde CN, Cronin KA, Breen N, Waldron WR, Ambs AH, Nadel MR (2011) Trends in colorectal cancer test use among vulnerable populations in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 20(8):1611–1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Meissner HI, Breen N, Klabunde CN, Vernon SW (2006) Patterns of colorectal cancer screening uptake among men and women in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 15(2):389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sabatino SA, White MC, Thompson TD, Klabunde CN (2015) Cancer screening test use—United States, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 64(17):464–468PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shapiro JA, Klabunde CN, Thompson TD, Nadel MR, Seeff LC, White A (2012) Patterns of colorectal cancer test use, including CT colonography, in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 21(6):895–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shapiro JA, Seeff LC, Thompson TD, Nadel MR, Klabunde CN, Vernon SW (2008) Colorectal cancer test use from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 17(7):1623–1630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    White A, Thompson TD, White MC et al (2017) Cancer screening test use—United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 66(8):201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liss DT, Baker DW (2014) Understanding current racial/ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer screening in the United States: the contribution of socioeconomic status and access to care. Am J Prev Med 46(3):228–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Valdovinos C, Penedo FJ, Isasi CR et al (2016) Perceived discrimination and cancer screening behaviors in US Hispanics: the Hispanic community health study/study of Latinos sociocultural ancillary study. Cancer Causes Control 27(1):27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jandorf L, Ellison J, Villagra C et al (2010) Understanding the barriers and facilitators of colorectal cancer screening among low income immigrant hispanics. J Immigr Minor Health 12(4):462–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Miller DP Jr, Denizard-Thompson N, Weaver KE et al (2018) Effect of a digital health intervention on receipt of colorectal cancer screening in vulnerable patients: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 168:550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Reuland DS, Brenner AT, Hoffman R et al (2017) Effect of combined patient decision aid and patient navigation vs usual care for colorectal cancer screening in a vulnerable patient population: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 177(7):967–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Goldman SN, Liss DT, Brown T et al (2015) Comparative effectiveness of multifaceted outreach to initiate colorectal cancer screening in community health centers: a randomized controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med 30(8):1178–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Singal AG, Gupta S, Skinner CS et al (2017) Effect of colonoscopy outreach vs fecal immunochemical test outreach on colorectal cancer screening completion: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 318(9):806–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gupta S, Halm EA, Rockey DC et al (2013) Comparative effectiveness of fecal immunochemical test outreach, colonoscopy outreach, and usual care for boosting colorectal cancer screening among the underserved: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 173(18):1725–1732PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gushulak BD, MacPherson DW (2006) The basic principles of migration health: population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 3(3):3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wu X, Chen VW, Andrews PA, Ruiz B, Correa P (2007) Incidence of esophageal and gastric cancers among Hispanics, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic Blacks in the United States: subsite and histology differences. Cancer Causes Control 18(6):585–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Trapido EJ, Burciaga RV, Obeso JL, Strickman-Stein N, Rotger A, Perez-Stable EJ (1995) Epidemiology of cancer among Hispanics in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1995(18):17–28Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Altekruse SF, McGlynn KA, Reichman ME (2009) Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence, mortality, and survival trends in the United States from 1975 to 2005. J Clin Oncol 27(9):1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    El-Serag HB, Lau M, Eschbach K, Davila J, Goodwin J (2007) Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Hispanics in the United States. Arch Intern Med 167(18):1983–1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL (2016) Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA 315(21):2284–2291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mainous AG III, Majeed A, Koopman RJ et al (2006) Acculturation and diabetes among Hispanics: evidence from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Public Health Rep 121(1):60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wang DY, Thrift AP, Zarrin-Khameh N et al (2017) Rising incidence of colorectal cancer among young Hispanics in Texas. J Clin Gastroenterol 51(1):34–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    FactFinder USCBA. B01001I: sex by age [Hispanic or Latino Only]. http://factfinder2.census.gov. Accessed 19 April 2018
  53. 53.
    Singh H, Nugent Z, Demers AA, Kliewer EV, Mahmud SM, Bernstein CN (2010) The reduction in colorectal cancer mortality after colonoscopy varies by site of the cancer. Gastroenterology 139(4):1128–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yin D, Morris CR, Bates JH, German RR (2011) Effect of misclassified underlying cause of death on survival estimates of colon and rectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 103(14):1130–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Soto-Salgado M, Suarez E, Calo W, Cruz-Correa M, Figueroa-Valles NR, Ortiz AP (2009) Incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer in Puerto Rico and among Hispanics, non-Hispanic Whites, and non-Hispanic Blacks in the United States, 1998-2002. Cancer 115(13):3016–3023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gomez SL, Glaser SL (2005) Quality of cancer registry birthplace data for Hispanics living in the United States. Cancer Causes Control 16(6):713–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lin SS, O’Malley CD, Lui SW (2001) Factors associated with missing birthplace information in a population-based cancer registry. Ethn Dis 11(4):598–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gomez SL, Le GM, West DW, Satariano WA, O’Connor L (2003) Hospital policy and practice regarding the collection of data on race, ethnicity, and birthplace. Am J Public Health 93(10):1685–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Clinical Sciences and Internal MedicineUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA
  2. 2.Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer CenterDallasUSA
  3. 3.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Clinical SciencesUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations