Advertisement

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 29, Issue 8, pp 707–719 | Cite as

Height, waist circumference, body mass index, and body somatotype across the life course and risk of glioma

  • David J. Cote
  • Mary K. Downer
  • Timothy R. Smith
  • Stephanie A. Smith-Warner
  • Kathleen M. Egan
  • Meir J. Stampfer
Original paper
  • 128 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Recent studies have suggested height as a risk factor for glioma, but less is known regarding body mass index (BMI) or other anthropomorphic measures. We evaluated the association between body habitus and risk of glioma.

Methods

We evaluated the association of measures of height, BMI, waist circumference, and somatotypes with risk of glioma in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

Results

We documented 508 incident cases of glioma (321 glioblastoma [GBM]). In both cohorts, we found no significant association between adult BMI or waist circumference and risk of glioma, with pooled HR for BMI of 1.08 (95% CI 0.85–1.38 comparing ≥ 30 to < 25 kg/m2) and for waist circumference of 1.05 (95% CI 0.80–1.37 highest vs. lowest quintile). Higher young adult BMI (at age 18 in NHS and 21 in HPFS) was associated with modestly increased risk of glioma in the pooled cohorts (pooled HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06–1.72 comparing ≥ 25 kg/m2 vs. less; HR 1.34 for women and 1.37 for men). Analysis of body somatotypes suggested reduced risk of glioma among women with heavier body types at all ages this measure was assessed (HRs ranging from 0.52 to 0.65 comparing highest tertile to lowest tertile), but no significant association among men. Height was associated with increased risk of glioma among women (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.14 per inch), but not significantly among men. Within the 8 years prior to diagnosis, cases had no material weight loss compared to non-cases. All results were similar when limited to GBM.

Conclusion

Adult BMI and waist circumference were not associated with glioma. Higher BMI at age 21 for men and at age 18 for women was modestly associated with risk in the pooled cohort. Based on body somatotypes, however, women with heavier body types during childhood and young adulthood may be at lower risk of glioma, although this association was not observed later in life with measurements of BMI. Greater height was associated with increased risk, and the trend was more pronounced in women.

Keywords

Body habitus Body mass index Glioblastoma Glioma Height Waist circumference Weight 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the participants and staff of the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study for their valuable contributions as well as the following state cancer registries for their help: AL, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, ID, IL, IN, IA, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, NE, NH, NJ, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WA, and WY. The authors assume full responsibility for analyses and interpretation of these data.

Funding

National Institutes of Health (NIH) Training Grant T32 CA 009001 (DJC, MKD). The authors acknowledge support from the following Grants: UM1 CA186107, P01 CA87969, and UM1 CA167552.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10552_2018_1052_MOESM1_ESM.tif (56 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1 Pre-diagnostic weight change for all gliomas. Figure 2 shows weight residuals in pounds for all glioma cases adjusted for height, age, age-squared, and time period by cohort for eight years prior to diagnosis (TIF 55 KB)
10552_2018_1052_MOESM2_ESM.tif (62 kb)
Supplementary Figure 2 Pre-diagnostic weight change for GBM. Figure 3 shows weight residuals in pounds for GBM cases adjusted for height, age, age-squared, and time period by cohort for eight years prior to diagnosis (TIF 62 KB)
10552_2018_1052_MOESM3_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 13 KB)
10552_2018_1052_MOESM4_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 16 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Sergentanis TN, Tsivgoulis G, Perlepe C et al (2015) Obesity and risk for brain/CNS tumors, gliomas and meningiomas: a meta-analysis. PloS ONE 10:e0136974CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wiedmann MK, Brunborg C, Di Ieva A et al (2016) The impact of body mass index and height on the risk for glioblastoma and other glioma subgroups: a large prospective cohort study. Neuro-Oncology 19:976–985PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moore SC, Rajaraman P, Dubrow R et al (2009) Height, body mass index, and physical activity in relation to glioma risk. Cancer Res 69:8349–8355CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Niedermaier T, Behrens G, Schmid D, Schlecht I, Fischer B, Leitzmann MF (2015) Body mass index, physical activity, and risk of adult meningioma and glioma: a meta-analysis. Neurology 85:1342–1350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wiedmann M, Brunborg C, Lindemann K et al (2013) Body mass index and the risk of meningioma, glioma and schwannoma in a large prospective cohort study (The HUNT Study). Br J Cancer 109:289–294CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Michaud DS, Bove G, Gallo V et al (2011) Anthropometric measures, physical activity, and risk of glioma and meningioma in a large prospective cohort study. Cancer Prev Res 4:1385–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Little RB, Madden MH, Thompson RC et al (2013) Anthropometric factors in relation to risk of glioma. Cancer Causes Control 24:1025–1031CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Xu J et al (2016) CBTRUS statistical report: primary brain and other central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2009–2013. Neuro-Oncology. 18: v1–v75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arslan AA, Helzlsouer KJ, Kooperberg C et al (2010) Anthropometric measures, body mass index, and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan). Arch Intern Med 170:791–802CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Warner ET, Hu R, Collins LC et al (2016) Height and body size in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood and breast cancer risk according to molecular subtype in the nurses’ health studies. Cancer Prev Res 9:732–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schwartzbaum J, Jonsson F, Ahlbom A et al (2005) Prior hospitalization for epilepsy, diabetes, and stroke and subsequent glioma and meningioma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 14:643–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wolpin BM, Chan AT, Hartge P et al (2009) ABO blood group and the risk of pancreatic cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 101:424–431CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khalili H, Wolpin BM, Huang ES et al (2011) ABO blood group and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 20:1017–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Ritz J et al (2006) Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies: the pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer. Am J Epidemiol 163:1053–1064CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Chute CG, Litin LB, Willett WC (1990) Validity of self-reported waist and hip circumferences in men and women. Epidemiology 1:466–473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Troy LM, Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (1995) The validity of recalled weight among younger women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 19:570–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stunkard AJ, Sorensen T, Schulsinger F (1983) Use of the Danish adoption register for the study of obesity and thinness. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Mental Dis 60: 115–120Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Must A, Willett WC, Dietz WH (1993) Remote recall of childhood height, weight, and body build by elderly subjects. Am J Epidemiol 138:56–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Speizer FE et al (1984) Test of the national death index. Am J Epidemiol 119:837–839CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, Grosse Y, Bianchini F, Straif K (2016) Body fatness and cancer–viewpoint of the IARC working group. N Engl J Med 375:794–798CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ (2003) Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 348:1625–1638CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oh SW, Yoon YS, Shin SA (2005) Effects of excess weight on cancer incidences depending on cancer sites and histologic findings among men: Korea national health insurance corporation study. J Clin Oncol 23:4742–4754CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tyagi V, Theobald J, Barger J et al (2016) Traumatic brain injury and subsequent glioblastoma development: review of the literature and case reports. Surg Neurol Int 7:78CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gu J, Liu Y, Kyritsis AP, Bondy ML (2009) Molecular epidemiology of primary brain tumors. Neurotherapeutics 6:427–435CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lehrer S, Green S, Rendo A, Rosenzweig KE (2015) Measles may be a risk factor for malignant brain tumors. Brain Tumor Res Treat 3:65–67CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brenner AV, Linet MS, Shapiro WR et al (2004) Season of birth and risk of brain tumors in adults. Neurology 63:276–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kitahara CM, Gamborg M, Rajaraman P, Sorensen TI, Baker JL (2014) A prospective study of height and body mass index in childhood, birth weight, and risk of adult glioma over 40 years of follow-up. Am J Epidemiol 180:821–829CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harder T, Plagemann A, Harder A (2008) Birth weight and subsequent risk of childhood primary brain tumors: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 168: 366–373Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Georgakis MK, Kalogirou EI, Liaskas A et al (2017) Anthropometrics at birth and risk of a primary central nervous system tumour: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer 75:117–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC (1997) Height, body weight, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 6:557–563Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Skullerud K (1985) Variations in the size of the human brain. Influence of age, sex, body length, body mass index, alcoholism, Alzheimer changes, and cerebral atherosclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand 102:1–94Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Cote
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mary K. Downer
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Timothy R. Smith
    • 3
  • Stephanie A. Smith-Warner
    • 2
    • 4
  • Kathleen M. Egan
    • 5
  • Meir J. Stampfer
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard T. H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  3. 3.Computational Neurosciences Outcomes Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of NutritionHarvard T. H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  5. 5.Division of Population SciencesH. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research InstituteTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations