Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 165–174 | Cite as

Effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on physiological function and PSA doubling time in prostate cancer patients

  • Thine Hvid
  • Birgitte Lindegaard
  • Kamilla Winding
  • Peter Iversen
  • Klaus Brasso
  • Thomas P. J. Solomon
  • Bente K. Pedersen
  • Pernille Hojman
Original paper



Physical activity after prostate cancer diagnosis has been shown to reduce the risk of disease progression. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on body composition, biomarkers levels, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time as a surrogate end-point for progressing disease.


Out-clinic patients with either biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy or patients managed on active surveillance were randomized to either 24 months (3 times/week) of home-based endurance training or usual care. Aerobic fitness, body composition, insulin sensitivity, and biomarkers were measured at 0, 6, and 24 months of intervention. PSA doubling time (PSADT) was calculated based on monthly PSA measurements.


Twenty-five patients were enrolled, and 19 patients completed the study. PSADT increased in the training group from 28 to 76 months (p < 0.05) during the first 6 months and was correlated with changes in VO2max (p < 0.01, r2 = 0.41). The training group lost 3.6 ± 1.0 kg (p < 0.05) exclusively as fat mass, yet the changes in body composition were not associated with the increased PSADT. The training group showed significant improvements in plasma triglycerides, adiponectin, IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and fasting glucose levels, but no changes in insulin sensitivity (measured as Matsuda index), testosterone, cholesterols, fasting insulin, plasma TNF-alpha, IL-6, or leptin levels. The control group showed no changes in any of the evaluated parameters across the 2-year intervention.


In this small randomized controlled trial, we found that improvements in fitness levels correlated with increasing PSADT, suggesting a link between training and disease progression.


PSA PSA doubling time Exercise Insulin sensitivity and body composition 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thine Hvid
    • 1
  • Birgitte Lindegaard
    • 1
  • Kamilla Winding
    • 1
  • Peter Iversen
    • 2
  • Klaus Brasso
    • 2
  • Thomas P. J. Solomon
    • 1
    • 3
  • Bente K. Pedersen
    • 1
  • Pernille Hojman
    • 1
  1. 1.The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Centre of Physical Activity Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Urology, Copenhagen Prostate Cancer CenterRigshospitaletCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical Sciences, Panum InstituteUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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