Advertisement

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 151–158 | Cite as

International testicular cancer incidence trends: generational transitions in 38 countries 1900–1990

  • Ariana Znaor
  • Joannie Lortet-Tieulent
  • Mathieu Laversanne
  • Ahmedin Jemal
  • Freddie Bray
Brief report

Abstract

Purpose

Rapid increases in testicular cancer incidence have marked the second half of the last century. While these secular rises, observed mainly in countries attaining the highest levels of human development, appear to have attenuated in the last decade, rates continue to increase in countries transiting toward high developmental levels. The purpose of our study was to provide a comprehensive analysis and presentation of the cohort-specific trends in testicular cancer incidence rates in 38 countries worldwide.

Methods

We used an augmented version of the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series to analyze testicular cancer incidence in men aged 15–54 in 38 countries, via age–period–cohort analysis.

Results

In many European countries, the USA, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, there is a continuation of the increasing risk among successive generations, yet rates are attenuating in male cohorts born since the 1970s in several Northern European countries, in contrast to the steeply increasing trends in recent cohorts in Southern Europe. Incidence rates have also been increasing in the populations traditionally at rather low risk, such as in the Philippines, Singapore, China, and Costa Rica.

Conclusions

The attenuation of testicular cancer risk in younger generations (in the most developed countries) alongside concomitant increases (in countries undergoing developmental change) is indicative of a global transition in the risk of testicular cancer. While identifying the underlying causes remains a major challenge, increasing awareness and adapting national healthcare systems to accommodate a growing burden of testicular cancer may prevent future avoidable deaths in young men.

Keywords

Testicular cancer Age–period–cohort analysis Incidence Trends 

Abbreviations

CI5

Cancer Incidence in Five Continents

APC

Age–period–cohort

References

  1. 1.
    Bray F, Richiardi L, Ekbom A, Pukkala E, Cuninkova M, Moller H (2006) Trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality in 22 European countries: continuing increases in incidence and declines in mortality. Int J Cancer 118(12):3099–3111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chia VM, Quraishi SM, Devesa SS, Purdue MP, Cook MB, McGlynn KA (2010) International trends in the incidence of testicular cancer, 1973–2002. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19(5):1151–1159PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray F (2013) GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. http://globocan.iarc.fr
  4. 4.
    Bergstrom R, Adami HO, Mohner M et al (1996) Increase in testicular cancer incidence in six European countries: a birth cohort phenomenon. J Natl Cancer Inst 88(11):727–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bray F, Richiardi L, Ekbom A et al (2006) Do testicular seminoma and nonseminoma share the same etiology? Evidence from an age-period-cohort analysis of incidence trends in eight European countries. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15(4):652–658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Richiardi L, Bellocco R, Adami HO et al (2004) Testicular cancer incidence in eight northern European countries: secular and recent trends. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13(12):2157–2166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Verhoeven R, Houterman S, Kiemeney B, Koldewijn E, Coebergh JW (2008) Testicular cancer: marked birth cohort effects on incidence and a decline in mortality in southern Netherlands since 1970. Int J Cancer 122(3):639–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kanetsky PA, Mitra N, Vardhanabhuti S et al (2009) Common variation in KITLG and at 5q31.3 predisposes to testicular germ cell cancer. Nat Genet 41(7):811–815PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chung CC, Kanetsky PA, Wang Z et al (2013) Meta-analysis identifies four new loci associated with testicular germ cell tumor. Nat Genet 45(6):680–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ruark E, Seal S, McDonald H et al (2013) Identification of nine new susceptibility loci for testicular cancer, including variants near DAZL and PRDM14. Nat Genet 45(6):686–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McGlynn KA (2001) Environmental and host factors in testicular germ cell tumors. Cancer Invest 19(8):842–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Garner MJ, Turner MC, Ghadirian P, Krewski D (2005) Epidemiology of testicular cancer: an overview. Int J Cancer 116(3):331–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cook MB, Akre O, Forman D, Madigan MP, Richiardi L, McGlynn KA (2009) A systematic review and meta-analysis of perinatal variables in relation to the risk of testicular cancer–experiences of the mother. Int J Epidemiol 38(6):1532–1542PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cook MB, Akre O, Forman D, Madigan MP, Richiardi L, McGlynn KA (2010) A systematic review and meta-analysis of perinatal variables in relation to the risk of testicular cancer–experiences of the son. Int J Epidemiol 39(6):1605–1618PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bosetti C, Bertuccio P, Chatenoud L, Negri E, La Vecchia C, Levi F (2011) Trends in mortality from urologic cancers in Europe, 1970–2008. Eur Urol 60(1):1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Levi F, La Vecchia C, Boyle P, Lucchini F, Negri E (2001) Western and eastern European trends in testicular cancer mortality. Lancet 357(9271):1853–1854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Znaor A, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A, Bray F (2013) International variations and trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality. Eur Urol. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.11.004 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Znaor A, Bray F (2012) Thirty year trends in testicular cancer mortality in Europe: gaps persist between the East and West. Acta Oncol 51(7):956–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bertuccio P, Malvezzi M, Chatenoud L et al (2007) Testicular cancer mortality in the Americas, 1980–2003. Cancer 109(4):776–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McGlynn KA, Devesa SS, Sigurdson AJ, Brown LM, Tsao L, Tarone RE (2003) Trends in the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in the United States. Cancer 97(1):63–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ferlay J, Parkin DM, Curado MP, Bray F, Edwards B, Shin HR, Forman D (2010) Cancer incidence in five continents, volumes I to IX: IARC CancerBase No. 9. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. http://ci5.iarc.fr
  22. 22.
    Doll R, Payne P, Waterhouse J (1966) Cancer incidence in five continents, vol I. Union Internationale Contre le Cancer, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clayton D, Schifflers E (1987) Models for temporal variation in cancer rates. I: age-period and age-cohort models. Stat Med 6(4):449–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Clayton D, Schifflers E (1987) Models for temporal variation in cancer rates. II: age–period–cohort models. Stat Med 6(4):469–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rutherford M, Lambert P, Thompson J (2010) Age-Period-cohort modelling. Stata J 10(4):606–627Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    StataCorp LP (2011) Stata statistical software. College Station, TXGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Skakkebaek NE, Rajpert-De ME, Jorgensen N et al (2007) Testicular cancer trends as ‘whistle blowers’ of testicular developmental problems in populations. Int J Androl 30(4):198–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Skakkebaek NE, Berthelsen JG, Giwercman A, Muller J (1987) Carcinoma-in situ of the testis: possible origin from gonocytes and precursor of all types of germ cell tumours except spermatocytoma. Int J Androl 10(1):19–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moller H (1989) Decreased testicular cancer risk in men born in wartime. J Natl Cancer Inst 81(21):1668–1669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moller H (1993) Clues to the aetiology of testicular germ cell tumours from descriptive epidemiology. Eur Urol 23(1):8–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Le Cornet C, Lortet-Tieulent J, Forman D et al (2013) Testicular cancer incidence to rise by 25 % by 2025 in Europe? Model-based predictions in 40 countries using population-based registry data. Eur J Cancer 50(4):831–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariana Znaor
    • 1
  • Joannie Lortet-Tieulent
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mathieu Laversanne
    • 1
  • Ahmedin Jemal
    • 2
  • Freddie Bray
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Cancer SurveillanceInternational Agency for Research on CancerLyon, Cedex 08France
  2. 2.Surveillance & Health Services ResearchAmerican Cancer SocietyNW AtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations