Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 905–913 | Cite as

Maternal and birth characteristics and childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group

  • Philip J. Lupo
  • Heather E. Danysh
  • Stephen X. Skapek
  • Douglas S. Hawkins
  • Logan G. Spector
  • Renke Zhou
  • M. Fatih Okcu
  • Karin Papworth
  • Erik B. Erhardt
  • Seymour Grufferman
Original paper

Abstract

Purpose

Previous assessments of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma have indicated maternal and birth characteristics may be associated with tumor development; however, much work remains to identify novel and confirm suspected risk factors. Our objective was to evaluate the associations between maternal and birth characteristics and childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

Methods

This case–control study included 322 cases and 322 pair-matched controls. Cases were enrolled in a trial run by the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. Population-based controls were identified using random digit dialing and were individually matched to cases on race, sex, and age. Families of the case and control subjects participated in a telephone interview, which captured information on maternal characteristics (birth control use, number of prenatal visits, anemia, and abnormal bleeding during pregnancy) and birth characteristics [birth weight, preterm birth, and type of delivery (vaginal vs. cesarean)]. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate an odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for each exposure, adjusted for age, race, sex, household income, and parental education. As the two most common histologic types of rhabdomyosarcoma are embryonal (n = 215) and alveolar (n = 66), we evaluated effect heterogeneity of these exposures.

Results

The only characteristic that was associated with childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, and statistically significant, was abnormal vaginal bleeding during pregnancy (OR 1.75, 95 % CI 1.12–2.74). Birth control use (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 0.96–2.18), anemia during pregnancy (OR 1.27, 95 % CI 0.81–1.99), and preterm birth (OR 2.51, 95 % CI 0.74–8.49) were positively associated with childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, but were not statistically significant. Low birth weight [adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 4.46, 95 % CI 1.41–14.1] and high birth weight (aOR 2.41, 95 % CI 1.09–5.35) were strongly associated with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. However, these factors did not display significant effect heterogeneity between histologic types (p > 0.15 for all characteristics).

Conclusions

Overall, we found little evidence that these maternal and birth characteristics are strongly associated with childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

Keywords

Abnormal vaginal bleeding Epidemiology Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft tissue sarcoma 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by US National Cancer Institute grants CA21244, CA24507, CA30318, CA30969, CA29139, and CA13539, and in part by Kurt Groten Family Research Scholars Award (P. Lupo).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip J. Lupo
    • 1
  • Heather E. Danysh
    • 1
  • Stephen X. Skapek
    • 2
  • Douglas S. Hawkins
    • 3
  • Logan G. Spector
    • 4
  • Renke Zhou
    • 1
  • M. Fatih Okcu
    • 1
  • Karin Papworth
    • 5
  • Erik B. Erhardt
    • 6
  • Seymour Grufferman
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children’s Cancer CenterBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Children’s Medical CenterUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA
  3. 3.Seattle Children’s Hospital, University of Washington, and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Division of Pediatric Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Department of PediatricsUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  5. 5.Department of Radiation Sciences, OncologyUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  6. 6.Department of Mathematics and StatisticsUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  7. 7.Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

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