Anti-Mullerian hormone and risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer
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Epithelial ovarian cancers either arise directly from Mullerian-type epithelium or acquire Mullerian characteristics in the course of neoplastic transformation. The anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) causes regression of Mullerian structures during fetal development in males and has been shown to inhibit the growth of epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, we hypothesized that pre-diagnostic serum concentrations of AMH are inversely associated with risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer.
A case–control study (107 cases, 208 controls) was nested within the population-based Finnish Maternity Cohort (1986–2007). The sample donated during the first trimester of the last pregnancy preceding cancer diagnosis of the case subjects was selected for the study. For each case, two controls, matched on age and date at sampling, as well as parity at sampling and at cancer diagnosis were selected. AMH was measured by a second-generation AMH ELISA. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for invasive serous ovarian cancer associated with AMH concentrations.
Overall AMH concentrations were not associated with risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer (OR 0.93; 95 % CI 0.49–1.77 for top vs. bottom tertile, Ptrend = 0.83). In women older than the median age at sampling (32.7 years), a doubling of AMH was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.49–0.96), whereas an increased risk (OR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.06–2.54) was observed in younger women, Phomogeneity = 0.002.
In this first prospective investigation, risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer was not associated with pre-diagnostic AMH concentrations overall; however, the association may depend on age at AMH measurement.
KeywordsAnti-Mullerian hormone Ovarian neoplasms Pregnancy Case–control studies Prospective studies
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