Dietary intake of acrylamide and esophageal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort
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The relation between dietary acrylamide intake and esophageal cancer (EC) risk, including esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), has not been consistent. We evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and EAC, ESCC, and overall EC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the HR and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). Since nonlinear relations were observed, HRs were displayed for quartiles of acrylamide intake in μg per day.
After a mean follow-up of 11 years, 341 EC were identified, 142 of which were EAC, 176 ESCC, and 23 other histological types or not specified. An increase in EC risk was observed in the second and third quartiles (HRQ2vsQ1 1.75, 95 % CI 1.12–2.74; HRQ3vsQ1 1.66, 95 % CI 1.05–2.61), but not in the fourth quartile, and there was no evidence for a linear dose–response trend. HRs were similarly elevated but not statistically significant when ESCC and EAC were analyzed separately, due to the small number of cases observed. No associations were observed when quartiles were based on energy-adjusted acrylamide intake.
In the EPIC cohort, an association between estimated dietary acrylamide intake and an increased risk of developing EC was observed in the middle quartiles but not in the highest quartile; however, results from other larger cohorts or consortia, and results from biomarker studies, might add to the evidence provided by this analysis, suggesting that acrylamide is not an important risk factor for EC.
KeywordsEsophageal cancer Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Esophageal adenocarcinoma Acrylamide intake Cohort Nutrition
This work was partially supported by Wereld Kanker Onderzoek Fonds (WCRF NL) (Grant WCRF 2011/442) and by the Health Research Fund (FIS) of the Spanish Ministry of Health (Exp PI11/01473). The coordination of EPIC is financially supported by the European Commission (DG-SANCO) and the IARC. The national cohorts are supported by the Health Research Fund (FIS) of the Spanish Ministry of Health (Exp P10710130), Regional Governments of Andalucía, Asturias, Basque Country, Murcia (No. 6236), Navarra, and the Catalan Institute of Oncology, La Caixa (BM 06-130), RTICC-RD06/10091 and RD12/0036/0018 (Spain); Danish Cancer Society (Denmark); Ligue contre le Cancer, Institut Gustave Roussy, Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) (France); Deutsche Krebshilfe, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum and Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany); the Hellenic Health Foundation (Greece); Italian Association for Research on Cancer (AIRC) and National Research Council (Italy); Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (VWS), Netherlands Cancer Registry (NKR), LK Research Funds, Dutch Prevention Funds, Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland), World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), and Statistics Netherlands (The Netherlands); Swedish Cancer Society, Swedish Scientific Council and Regional Government of Skåne and Västerbotten (Sweden); NordForsk (Centre of Excellence programme HELGA (070015)) (Norway); Cancer Research UK, Medical Research Council (UK).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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