Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 1779–1787 | Cite as

The protective effect of coffee consumption on cutaneous melanoma risk and the role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms

  • Cristina Fortes
  • Simona Mastroeni
  • Paolo Boffetta
  • Gianluca Antonelli
  • Maria Antonietta Pilla
  • Giordano Bottà
  • Patrizia Anzidei
  • Federica Venanzetti
Original paper



The authors examined the association between coffee consumption and cutaneous melanoma and the implication of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms.


A hospital-based case–control study was conducted in the inpatient wards of IDI-San Carlo Rome, Italy, including 304 incident cases of cutaneous melanoma and 305 controls. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking, sun exposure, pigmentary characteristics and diet was collected for all subjects. Within the study, individual patterns at two polymorphic genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) belonging to glutathione S-transferases family were investigated in 188 cases of cutaneous melanoma and 152 controls. Logistic regression was the method used to estimate odds ratio and 95 % confidence intervals.


High frequency of coffee drinking (>once daily), compared with low-frequency consumption of coffee (≤7 times weekly) was associated with a protective effect for cutaneous melanoma (OR 0.46; 95 % CI 0.31–0.68) after adjusting for sex, age, education, hair colour, common nevi, skin phototype, and sunburn episodes in childhood. When stratified by GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotype, the protective effect of coffee was extremely high for subjects with both GSTM1 and GSTT1 null polymorphisms (OR 0.01; 95 % CI 0.0003–0.54).


Our results show a protective effect of coffee consumption for cutaneous melanoma, in particular for those with homozygous deletion for GSTM1 and GSTT1.


Melanoma Coffee Diet GSTM1 GSTT1 Polymorphisms 



This work was supported by the Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata, Istituto di Ricovero a Carattere Scientifico (Progetto Ricerca Corrente 2011, Italian Ministry of Health) and by the Consulenza Tecnica Accertamento Rischi e Prevenzione—Istituto Nazionale per l’Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul lavoro (INAIL).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Supplementary material

10552_2013_255_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Fortes
    • 1
  • Simona Mastroeni
    • 1
  • Paolo Boffetta
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gianluca Antonelli
    • 1
  • Maria Antonietta Pilla
    • 1
  • Giordano Bottà
    • 4
  • Patrizia Anzidei
    • 5
  • Federica Venanzetti
    • 5
  1. 1.Clinical Epidemiology UnitIstituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata, IDI-IRCSSRomeItaly
  2. 2.Mount Sinai School of MedicineInstitute for Translational Epidemiology and Tisch Cancer InstituteNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.International Prevention Research InstituteLyonFrance
  4. 4.Parasitology Unit, Department of Public Health and Infectious DiseasesUniversity of Rome “La Sapienza”RomeItaly
  5. 5.Technical Directorate for Risk Assessment and PreventionItalian Workers’ Compensation Authority (INAIL)RomeItaly

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