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Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 1045–1052 | Cite as

Androgenetic alopecia at various ages and prostate cancer risk in an equal-access multiethnic case–control series of veterans

  • Jean-Alfred Thomas
  • Jodi A. Antonelli
  • Lionel L. Banez
  • Catherine Hoyo
  • Delores Grant
  • Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
  • Elizabeth A. Platz
  • Leah Gerber
  • Kathryn Shuler
  • Enwono Eyoh
  • Elizabeth Calloway
  • Stephen J. FreedlandEmail author
Original paper

Abstract

Purpose

Epidemiological data are conflicting regarding the association between androgenetic alopecia (AA) and prostate cancer (CaP). We examined the relationship between these two conditions.

Materials and methods

We performed a case–control study at a Veterans Affairs Hospital among 708 men: 312 healthy controls, 167 men with CaP, and 229 men without CaP on prostate biopsy. Participants were asked to self-describe hair patterns at ages 30 and 40 and at study enrollment. We tested the association between hair pattern (overall, vertex, or frontal) and CaP status using logistic regression analysis adjusting for multiple clinical features. Disease grade was similarly examined as a secondary outcome.

Results

Relative to healthy controls, younger age of AA onset was significantly associated with increased CaP risk (p = 0.008). Similar patterns were noted for frontal (p = 0.005) and not vertex balding (p = 0.22). When compared with biopsy-negative men, a similar pattern was seen with younger age of AA onset having higher risk of CaP, though this was not significant (p = 0.07). A suggestion for younger age of AA onset for frontal (p = 0.07) being associated with CaP versus biopsy-negative men was also observed. Overall balding (yes/no) was associated with greater than twofold increase in high-grade disease (p = 0.02).

Conclusions

Men reporting earlier AA onset were at increased CaP risk and suggestively had more aggressive disease. Contrary to other studies, frontal balding was the predominant pattern associated with elevated CaP risk. Further study is required to confirm these findings in a larger sample and to better understand the role of AA, androgens, and CaP biology.

Keywords

Androgenetic alopecia Prostate cancer High-grade disease 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors received funding and support from the Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense, T32 Training and the AUA Foundation/Astellas Rising Star in Urology Award.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Alfred Thomas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jodi A. Antonelli
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lionel L. Banez
    • 2
  • Catherine Hoyo
    • 4
  • Delores Grant
    • 3
  • Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
    • 6
  • Elizabeth A. Platz
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
  • Leah Gerber
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kathryn Shuler
    • 1
    • 2
  • Enwono Eyoh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Elizabeth Calloway
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stephen J. Freedland
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Urology, Duke Prostate Center, Department of SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, Durham Veterans Affairs HospitalDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Cancer Research Program, Department of Biology, JLC-Biomedical/Biotechnology Research InstituteNorth Carolina Central UniversityDurhamUSA
  4. 4.Department of Community and Family MedicineDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  5. 5.Department of PathologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  6. 6.Department of Nutrition SciencesUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  7. 7.Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  8. 8.James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutionsBaltimoreUSA
  9. 9.Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutionsBaltimoreUSA

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