Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 23, Issue 8, pp 1213–1222 | Cite as

Height and pancreatic cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

  • Dagfinn Aune
  • Ana Rita Vieira
  • Doris Sau Man Chan
  • Deborah A. Navarro Rosenblatt
  • Rui Vieira
  • Darren C. Greenwood
  • Janet E. Cade
  • Victoria J. Burley
  • Teresa Norat
Review article

Abstract

Background

Greater height has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, but epidemiological data on height and pancreatic cancer are inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify these results.

Methods

PubMed and several other databases were searched up to September 2011. Prospective studies of height and pancreatic cancer were included. Summary relative risks were estimated by the use of a random effects model.

Results

We identified twelve cohort studies that were included in the meta-analysis. The summary RR per 5-cm increase in height was 1.07 (95 % CI: 1.03–1.12, I2 = 57 %). The results were similar among men and women. The summary estimate was attenuated when we included results from two pooled analyses together with these studies, summary RR = 1.03 (95 % CI: 1.00–1.07, I2 = 44 %).

Conclusions

This meta-analysis of cohort studies provides further evidence that greater adult attained height is associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. However, given the unexplained heterogeneity, further studies are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.

Keywords

Height Pancreatic cancer The Continuous Update Project Systematic review Meta-analysis 

Supplementary material

10552_2012_9983_MOESM1_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 30 kb)
10552_2012_9983_MOESM2_ESM.doc (34 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 33 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM (2010) Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 127:2893–2917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Karim-Kos HE, de Vries E, Soerjomataram I, Lemmens V, Siesling S, Coebergh JW (2008) Recent trends of cancer in Europe: a combined approach of incidence, survival and mortality for 17 cancer sites since the 1990 s. Eur J Cancer 44:1345–1389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Iodice S, Gandini S, Maisonneuve P, Lowenfels AB (2008) Tobacco and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a review and meta-analysis. Langenbecks Arch Surg 393:535–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fuchs CS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ et al (1996) A prospective study of cigarette smoking and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Arch Intern Med 156:2255–2260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Permuth-Wey J, Egan KM (2009) Family history is a significant risk factor for pancreatic cancer: results from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Cancer 8:109–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Raimondi S, Lowenfels AB, Morselli-Labate AM, Maisonneuve P, Pezzilli R (2010) Pancreatic cancer in chronic pancreatitis; aetiology, incidence, and early detection. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 24:349–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huxley R, Ansary-Moghaddam A, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Barzi F, Woodward M (2005) Type-II diabetes and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of 36 studies. Br J Cancer 92:2076–2083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aune D, Greenwood DC, Chan DS et al (2012) Body mass index, abdominal fatness and pancreatic cancer risk: a systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Ann Oncol 23(4):843–852Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. AICR, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Green J, Cairns BJ, Casabonne D, Wright FL, Reeves G, Beral V (2011) Height and cancer incidence in the Million Women Study: prospective cohort, and meta-analysis of prospective studies of height and total cancer risk. Lancet Oncol 12:785–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Silventoinen K (2003) Determinants of variation in adult body height. J Biosoc Sci 35:263–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gunnell D, Okasha M, Smith GD, Oliver SE, Sandhu J, Holly JM (2001) Height, leg length, and cancer risk: a systematic review. Epidemiol Rev 23:313–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berrington de Gonzalez A, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Roddam A et al (2006) Anthropometry, physical activity, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:879–885Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Verhage BA, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA (2007) Anthropometry and pancreatic cancer risk: an illustration of the importance of microscopic verification. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1449–1454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berrington de Gonzalez A, Yun JE, Lee SY, Klein AP, Jee SH (2008) Pancreatic cancer and factors associated with the insulin resistance syndrome in the Korean cancer prevention study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:359–364Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meinhold CL, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Albanes D et al (2009) Predictors of fasting serum insulin and glucose and the risk of pancreatic cancer in smokers. Cancer Causes Control 20:681–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stevens RJ, Roddam AW, Spencer EA et al (2009) Factors associated with incident and fatal pancreatic cancer in a cohort of middle-aged women. Int J Cancer 124:2400–2405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Genkinger JM, Spiegelman D, Anderson KE et al (2011) A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies of anthropometric factors and pancreatic cancer risk. Int J Cancer 129(7):1708–1717Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arslan AA, Helzlsouer KJ, Kooperberg C et al (2010) Anthropometric measures, body mass index, and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan). Arch Intern Med 170:791–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Batty GD, Barzi F, Woodward M et al (2010) Adult height and cancer mortality in Asia: the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Ann Oncol 21:646–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC et al (2000) Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA 283:2008–2012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tulinius H, Sigfusson N, Sigvaldason H, Bjarnadottir K, Tryggvadottir L (1997) Risk factors for malignant diseases: a cohort study on a population of 22,946 Icelanders. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6:863–873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nilsen TI, Vatten LJ (2000) A prospective study of lifestyle factors and the risk of pancreatic cancer in Nord-Trondelag, Norway. Cancer Causes Control 11:645–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Michaud DS, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Fuchs CS (2001) Physical activity, obesity, height, and the risk of pancreatic cancer. JAMA 286:921–929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Batty GD, Shipley MJ, Langenberg C, Marmot MG, Davey SG (2006) Adult height in relation to mortality from 14 cancer sites in men in London (UK): evidence from the original Whitehall study. Ann Oncol 17:157–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Adams K, Leitzmann M et al (2008) Adiposity, physical activity, and pancreatic cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Cohort. Am J Epidemiol 167:586–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Luo J, Margolis KL, Adami HO, Lacroix A, Ye W (2008) Obesity and risk of pancreatic cancer among postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative (United States). Br J Cancer 99:527–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sung J, Song YM, Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Ebrahim S (2009) Height and site-specific cancer risk: A cohort study of a Korean adult population. Am J Epidemiol 170:53–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ogren M, Hedberg M, Berglund G, Borgstrom A, Janzon L (1996) Risk of pancreatic carcinoma in smokers enhanced by weight gain. Results from 10-year follow-up of the Malmo preventive Project Cohort Study. Int J Pancreatol 20:95–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Robsahm TE, Tretli S (1999) Height, weight and gastrointestinal cancer: a follow-up study in Norway. Eur J Cancer Prev 8:105–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D (2002) A prospective study of medical conditions, anthropometry, physical activity, and pancreatic cancer in male smokers (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 13:417–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Limburg P, Pollak M, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D (2004) Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-3, and pancreatic cancer in male smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:438–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Willett WC (2004) Height, predictors of C-peptide and cancer risk in men. Int J Epidemiol 33:217–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Song YM, Smith GD, Sung J (2003) Adult height and cause-specific mortality: a large prospective study of South Korean men. Am J Epidemiol 158:479–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Song YM, Sung J (2008) Adult height and the risk of mortality in South Korean women. Am J Epidemiol 168:497–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    DerSimonian R, Laird N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7:177–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Greenland S, Longnecker MP (1992) Methods for trend estimation from summarized dose-response data, with applications to meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 135:1301–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chene G, Thompson SG (1996) Methods for summarizing the risk associations of quantitative variables in epidemiologic studies in a consistent form. Am J Epidemiol 144:610–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Royston P (2000) A strategy for modelling the effect of a continuous covariate in medicine and epidemiology. Stat Med 19:1831–1847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bagnardi V, Zambon A, Quatto P, Corrao G (2004) Flexible meta-regression functions for modeling aggregate dose-response data, with an application to alcohol and mortality. Am J Epidemiol 159:1077–1086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG (2002) Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 21:1539–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Egger M, Davey SG, Schneider M, Minder C (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 315:629–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Begg CB, Mazumdar M (1994) Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 50:1088–1101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cairns BJ, Liu B, Clennell S et al (2011) Lifetime body size and reproductive factors: comparisons of data recorded prospectively with self reports in middle age. BMC Med Res Methodol 11:7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kushi LH, Kaye SA, Folsom AR, Soler JT, Prineas RJ (1988) Accuracy and reliability of self-measurement of body girths. Am J Epidemiol 128:740–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ (2002) Validity of self-reported height and weight in 4808 EPIC-Oxford participants. Public Health Nutr 5:561–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Berkey CS, Colditz GA, Rockett HR, Frazier AL, Willett WC (2009) Dairy consumption and female height growth: prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:1881–1887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rogers I, Emmett P, Gunnell D, Dunger D, Holly J (2006) Milk as a food for growth? The insulin-like growth factors link. Public Health Nutr 9:359–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rogers I, Metcalfe C, Gunnell D, Emmett P, Dunger D, Holly J (2006) Insulin-like growth factor-I and growth in height, leg length, and trunk length between ages 5 and 10 years. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2514–2519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    LeRoith D, Roberts CT Jr (2003) The insulin-like growth factor system and cancer. Cancer Lett 195:127–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Douglas JB, Silverman DT, Pollak MN, Tao Y, Soliman AS, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ (2010) Serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and risk of pancreatic cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:2298–2306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lin Y, Tamakoshi A, Kikuchi S et al (2004) Serum insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, and the risk of pancreatic cancer death. Int J Cancer 110:584–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wolpin BM, Michaud DS, Giovannucci EL et al (2007) Circulating insulin-like growth factor axis and the risk of pancreatic cancer in four prospective cohorts. Br J Cancer 97:98–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dagfinn Aune
    • 1
  • Ana Rita Vieira
    • 1
  • Doris Sau Man Chan
    • 1
  • Deborah A. Navarro Rosenblatt
    • 1
  • Rui Vieira
    • 1
  • Darren C. Greenwood
    • 2
  • Janet E. Cade
    • 3
  • Victoria J. Burley
    • 3
  • Teresa Norat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthImperial College LondonPaddington, LondonUK
  2. 2.Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and BiostatisticsUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  3. 3.School of Food Science and NutritionUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations