Mass media exposure, social stratification, and tobacco consumption among Nigerian adults
- 323 Downloads
Mass media exposure is a strong determinant of tobacco use yet little is known about this relationship in African countries. We explored socio-demographic and socio-contextual correlates of tobacco consumption and associations between mass media exposure, gender and the use of any and various forms of tobacco among Nigerians.
The study included 47,805 adults from the cross-sectional and nationally representative Nigeria demographic and health survey 2008. Weighted binary logistic models predicted any tobacco use whereas weighted multinomial logistic models predicted smoking and smokeless tobacco, all compared with no tobacco use.
Approximately 4.2% of Nigerian adults used tobacco—2.7% smoked tobacco whereas 1.5% used smokeless tobacco. Tobacco use was more prevalent among men than women (12% vs. 0.6%; p value <0.0001). Gender modified the associations between tobacco use and radio exposure or TV exposure (p values ranged = 0.02–0.05). Among men, some radio exposure and high radio exposure were associated with increased odds of any tobacco use, compared with no radio exposure. Among men, infrequently reading newspapers/magazines and frequently reading newspapers/magazines were associated with higher odds of smokeless tobacco use, compared with not reading newspapers/magazines. Among women, infrequently reading newspapers/magazines was associated with reduced odds of smokeless tobacco use, compared with not reading newspaper/magazines.
The relationships between mass media exposure and tobacco consumption differed by gender and were more pronounced among men. Research on radio programs may help to form policies that can address tobacco use among Nigerian men.
KeywordsTobacco Mass media Nigeria Africa Socio-economic status
The authors would like to acknowledge the initiative for maximizing diversity program at the Harvard School of Public Health, the respondents and administrators of the NDHS 2008, and the anonymous reviewers of this manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 3.Oluwafemi A (2003) Regional summary for the African region. In: Shafey O, Dolwick S, Guidon GE (eds) Tobacco control country profiles, 2nd edn. American Cancer Society, Atlanta, pp 27–31Google Scholar
- 4.World Bank (2009) http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/NIGERIAEXTN/0menuPK:368906~pagePK:141132~piPK:141107~theSitePK:36889600.html. Accessed 6 Mar 2010
- 5.National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF Macro (2009) Nigeria demographic and health survey 2008. National Population Commission and ICF Macro, AbujaGoogle Scholar
- 6.World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2005) http://www.who.int/fctc/signatories_parties/en/index.html. Accessed 16 Oct 2009
- 7.BAT (1991) TMD. Bates no: 301750937-301750938 at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dbf97a99/pdf?search=%22301750937%20nigeria%22
- 8.BAT (1993) Awareness and image monitor-Nigeria: research proposals II. Bates no: 500108814-500108821 at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/vyl76a99/pdf?search=%22radio%20tobacco%20nigeria%22
- 9.National Cancer Institute (2008) The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use. Tobacco control monograph no. 19. NIH pub. no. 07-6242. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
- 16.BAT (1996) JPGL relaunch brief: Nigeria. Bates no: 800520464/0465 at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/toc73a99/pdf?search=%22radio%20tobacco%20nigeria%22
- 17.BAT (1993) Benson and Hedges golden tones. Bates no: 503649543-503649544 at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/esy45a99/pdf?search=%22turn%20to%20gold%20nigeria%22
- 18.BAT (1994) Golden tones manual: draft 1. Bates no: 500273303-500273345 at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jjn70a99/pdf?search=%22500273345%20nigeria%22
- 19.BAT Radio script. Bates no: 700555627-700555632 at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/cqb70a99/pdf?search=%22turn%20to%20gold%20nigeria%22
- 20.Peer N, Bradshaw D, Laubscher R, Steyn K (2003) Trends in adult tobacco use from two South African demographic and health surveys conducted in 1998 and 2003. SAMJ 99(10):744–749Google Scholar
- 24.Ima-Obong AE (2008) Global youth tobacco survey for Nigeria. Centers for Disease Control. http://www.afro.who.int/dnc/databases/gyts/reports/NIGERIA_GYTS%202008.pdf. Accessed 16 Oct 2009
- 26.Drope J (2011) Nigerian tobacco situation analysis. http://www.africatobaccocontrol.org/en/images/resource_library/ATSA%20Nigeria%20Synthesis.pdf. Accessed 29 Dec 2011
- 27.Euromonitor (2009). http://www.euromonitor.com/Tobacco_in_Nigeria. Accessed 24 Jan 2011
- 29.World Health Organization (2010) http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/policy/country_profile/nga.pdf. Accessed 29 Dec 2011
- 36.Nielsen (2008) Average US home now receives a record 118.6 TV channels, according to Nielsen. http://en-us.nielsen.com/content/dam/nielsen/en_us/documents/pdf/Press%20Releases/2008/June/Average%20US%20Home%20Now%20Receives%20a%20Record%20118.6%20TV%20Channels,%20According%20to%20Nielsen.pdf. Accessed 17 Aug 2010
- 37.Eraction (2008) http://www.eraction.org/publications/eraction_jan_2008.pdf. Accessed 25 Jan 2011
- 38.McKinsey Global Institute (2010) Lions on the move: the progress and potential of African economies. http://ww1.mckinsey.com/mgi/publications/progress_and_potential_of_african_economies/pdfs/MGI_african_economies_full_report.pdf. Accessed 29 Dec 2011