Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 529–537

HBV infection increases the risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-012-0144-2

Cite this article as:
Luo, G., Hao, NB., Hu, CJ. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2013) 24: 529. doi:10.1007/s10552-012-0144-2



Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is reported to be associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (PaC), but it remains controversial whether this is a causal relationship. In addition, it is unclear whether the status of HBV infection also affects PaC risk. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to more closely examine the association between HBV infection and PaC.


The studies included in the meta-analysis were identified and retrieved from PubMed and several other databases. The literature search was conducted up until August 2012. We adopted the Cochrane Collaboration’s RevMan 5.1 in a combined analysis of pooled relative risk (RR) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects and a fixed-effects model.


Nine studies including 6 case–control and 3 cohort studies met eligibility criteria. The meta-analysis showed that the PaC risk was positively correlated with HBV infection when comparing with ‘never exposed to HBV’ subgroup, the pooled RR was 1.39 (95 % CI 1.22–1.59, p < 0.00001) in chronic HBV carriers, 1.41 (95 % CI 1.06–1.87, p = 0.02) in past exposure to HBV, and 3.83 (95 % CI 1.76–8.36, p = 0.0007) in active HBV infection. Using a stratified analysis, we also found that the risk of PaC was independent of smoking, alcohol drinking, and diabetes.


Findings from this meta-analysis strongly support that HBV infection is associated with an increased risk of PaC.


HBV Pancreatic cancer Etiology Prevention Meta-analysis 



Hepatitis B virus


Pancreatic cancer


Odds ratio


Relative risk


Hazard ratio


Confidence intervals

Supplementary material

10552_2012_144_MOESM1_ESM.tif (12.1 mb)
Supplementary Figure 1 Forest plots of risk of Pac associated with chronic carrier of HBV based on research sources (hospital-based and community-based studies) (TIFF 12,423 kb)
10552_2012_144_MOESM2_ESM.tif (18.5 mb)
Supplementary Figure 2 Forest plots of risk of Pac associated with past exposure to HBV based on race (TIFF 18,970 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gang Luo
    • 1
  • Ning-Bo Hao
    • 1
  • Chang-Jiang Hu
    • 1
  • Xin Yong
    • 1
  • Mu-Han Lü
    • 1
  • Bo-Jun Cheng
    • 1
  • Yao Zhang
    • 2
  • Shi-Ming Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyXinQiao Hospital or Biomedical Analysis Center Third Military Medical UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, Clinic Epidemiology CenterThird Military Medical UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China

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