Risk factors for young-onset colorectal cancer
- 941 Downloads
We investigated risk factors for colorectal cancer in early-onset cancers, to provide quantitative estimates for major selected risk factors.
We analyzed data from three Italian and Swiss case–control studies conducted between 1985 and 2009, including 329 colorectal cancer cases and 1,361 controls aged ≤45 years. We computed odds ratios (ORs) from unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for major confounding factors.
The OR of young-onset colorectal cancer was 4.50 for family history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives, the association being higher in subjects with affected siblings (OR 11.68) than parents (OR 3.75). The ORs of young-onset colorectal cancer were 1.56 for ≥14 drinks/week of alcohol, 1.56 for the highest tertile of processed meat, 0.40 for vegetables, 0.75 for fruit, and 0.78 for fish intake. Among micronutrients, the ORs were 0.52 for β-carotene, 0.68 for vitamin C, 0.38 for vitamin E, and 0.59 for folate. No significant associations emerged for physical activity, overweight, and diabetes.
This study—the largest on young-onset colorectal cancer—confirms that several recognized risk factors for colorectal cancer are also relevant determinants of young-onset colorectal cancer. Family history of colorectal cancer in particular is a stronger risk factor in young subjects, as compared to middle age and elderly ones.
KeywordsColorectal cancer Family history Foods Nutrients Risk factors Young
This work was supported by the Italian Association for Cancer Research (AIRC), Milan, Italy (Grant No. 10068), and by the Swiss League and Research against Cancer/Oncosuisse (Grant No. KFS-700, OCS-1633). The authors thank Mrs. I Garimoldi for editorial assistance.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 3.Giovannucci E, Wu K (2006) Cancers of the colon and rectum. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF Jr (eds) Cancer epidemiology and prevention, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 4.World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. AICR, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 22.Decarli A, Franceschi S, Ferraroni M, Gnagnarella P, Parpinel MT, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Salvini S, Falcini F, Giacosa A (1996) Validation of a food-frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intakes in cancer studies in Italy. Results for specific nutrients. Ann Epidemiol 6:110–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Salvini S (1998) Banca dati di composizione degli alimenti per studi epidemiologici in Italia. Istituito Europeo di Oncologia, ItaliaGoogle Scholar
- 24.Breslow NE, Day NE (1980) Statistical methods in cancer research, vol I. The analysis of case–control studies. IARC Sci Publ No. 32. IARC, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar