Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 13–25 | Cite as

Diabetes and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium

  • Joanne W. Elena
  • Emily Steplowski
  • Kai Yu
  • Patricia Hartge
  • Geoffrey S. Tobias
  • Michelle J. Brotzman
  • Stephen J. Chanock
  • Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon
  • Alan A. Arslan
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
  • Kathy Helzlsouer
  • Eric J. Jacobs
  • Andrea LaCroix
  • Gloria Petersen
  • Wei Zheng
  • Demetrius Albanes
  • Naomi E. Allen
  • Laufey Amundadottir
  • Ying Bao
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
  • Julie E. Buring
  • J. Michael Gaziano
  • Edward L. Giovannucci
  • Eric J. Duell
  • Göran Hallmans
  • Barbara V. Howard
  • David J. Hunter
  • Amy Hutchinson
  • Kevin B. Jacobs
  • Charles Kooperberg
  • Peter Kraft
  • Julie B. Mendelsohn
  • Dominique S. Michaud
  • Domenico Palli
  • Lawrence S. Phillips
  • Kim Overvad
  • Alpa V. Patel
  • Leah Sansbury
  • Xiao-Ou Shu
  • Michael S. Simon
  • Nadia Slimani
  • Dimitrios Trichopoulos
  • Kala Visvanathan
  • Jarmo Virtamo
  • Brian M. Wolpin
  • Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte
  • Charles S. Fuchs
  • Robert N. Hoover
  • Myron Gross
Original paper

Abstract

Purpose

Diabetes is a suspected risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but questions remain about whether it is a risk factor or a result of the disease. This study prospectively examined the association between diabetes and the risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in pooled data from the NCI pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan).

Methods

The pooled data included 1,621 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 1,719 matched controls from twelve cohorts using a nested case–control study design. Subjects who were diagnosed with diabetes near the time (<2 years) of pancreatic cancer diagnosis were excluded from all analyses. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, gender, study, alcohol use, smoking, BMI, and family history of pancreatic cancer.

Results

Self-reported diabetes was associated with a forty percent increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI: 1.07, 1.84). The association differed by duration of diabetes; risk was highest for those with a duration of 2–8 years (OR = 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.25, 2.55); there was no association for those with 9+ years of diabetes (OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.68, 1.52).

Conclusions

These findings provide support for a relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk. The absence of association in those with the longest duration of diabetes may reflect hypoinsulinemia and warrants further investigation.

Keywords

Diabetes Risk factor Cohort consortium Pancreatic cancer 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA)  2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanne W. Elena
    • 1
  • Emily Steplowski
    • 2
  • Kai Yu
    • 3
  • Patricia Hartge
    • 3
  • Geoffrey S. Tobias
    • 3
  • Michelle J. Brotzman
    • 5
  • Stephen J. Chanock
    • 3
    • 4
  • Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon
    • 3
  • Alan A. Arslan
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
    • 9
    • 10
  • Kathy Helzlsouer
    • 11
  • Eric J. Jacobs
    • 14
  • Andrea LaCroix
    • 15
  • Gloria Petersen
    • 16
  • Wei Zheng
    • 17
  • Demetrius Albanes
    • 3
  • Naomi E. Allen
    • 18
  • Laufey Amundadottir
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ying Bao
    • 19
  • Heiner Boeing
    • 20
  • Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
    • 21
  • Julie E. Buring
    • 22
    • 23
  • J. Michael Gaziano
    • 24
    • 25
  • Edward L. Giovannucci
    • 26
    • 27
    • 28
  • Eric J. Duell
    • 29
  • Göran Hallmans
    • 30
  • Barbara V. Howard
    • 31
  • David J. Hunter
    • 26
    • 27
  • Amy Hutchinson
    • 32
    • 4
  • Kevin B. Jacobs
    • 3
  • Charles Kooperberg
    • 15
  • Peter Kraft
    • 26
  • Julie B. Mendelsohn
    • 3
  • Dominique S. Michaud
    • 33
    • 34
  • Domenico Palli
    • 35
  • Lawrence S. Phillips
    • 36
    • 37
  • Kim Overvad
    • 38
  • Alpa V. Patel
    • 14
  • Leah Sansbury
    • 1
    • 39
  • Xiao-Ou Shu
    • 17
  • Michael S. Simon
    • 40
  • Nadia Slimani
    • 41
  • Dimitrios Trichopoulos
    • 26
    • 42
  • Kala Visvanathan
    • 12
    • 13
  • Jarmo Virtamo
    • 43
  • Brian M. Wolpin
    • 19
    • 44
  • Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte
    • 7
    • 8
  • Charles S. Fuchs
    • 19
    • 44
  • Robert N. Hoover
    • 3
  • Myron Gross
    • 45
  1. 1.Division of Cancer Control and Population Science (DCCPS), National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of HealthDepartment of Health and Human ServicesBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Information Management ServicesSilver SpringUSA
  3. 3.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of HealthDepartment of Health and Human ServicesBethesdaUSA
  4. 4.Laboratory of Translation Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of HealthDepartment of Health and Human ServicesBethesdaUSA
  5. 5.Westat, IncRockvilleUSA
  6. 6.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  7. 7.Department of Environmental MedicineNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  8. 8.New York University Cancer InstituteNew YorkUSA
  9. 9.National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)BilthovenThe Netherlands
  10. 10.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  11. 11.Prevention and Research CenterMercy Medical CenterBaltimoreUSA
  12. 12.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  13. 13.Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer CenterBaltimoreUSA
  14. 14.Epidemiology Research ProgramAmerican Cancer SocietyAtlantaUSA
  15. 15.Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  16. 16.Department of Health Sciences ResearchMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  17. 17.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer CenterVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  18. 18.Cancer Epidemiology UnitUniversity of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Clinical MedicineOxfordUK
  19. 19.Channing Laboratory, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  20. 20.German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-RehbrüeckeNuthetalGermany
  21. 21.Inserm, (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) and Institut Gustave RoussyVillejuifFrance
  22. 22.Divisions of Preventive Medicine and Aging, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  23. 23.Department of Ambulatory Care and PreventionHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  24. 24.Physicians’ Health Study, Divisions of Aging, Cardiovascular Medicine, and Preventive Medicine, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  25. 25.Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information CenterVeterans Affairs Boston Healthcare SystemBostonUSA
  26. 26.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  27. 27.Department of BiostatisticsHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  28. 28.Department of NutritionHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  29. 29.Unit of Nutrition, Environment and CancerCatalan Institute of Oncology (ICO-IDIBELL)BarcelonaSpain
  30. 30.Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional ResearchUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  31. 31.MedStar Health Research InstituteGeorgetown UniversityHyattsvilleUSA
  32. 32.Core Genotyping Facility, SAIC-Frederick Inc.NCI-FrederickFrederickUSA
  33. 33.Division of Biology and MedicineBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  34. 34.Division of Epidemiology, Public Health and Primary CareImperial CollegeLondonUK
  35. 35.Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology UnitCancer Research and Prevention Institute–ISPOFlorenceItaly
  36. 36.Division of EndocrinologyEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  37. 37.Atlanta VA Medical CenterDecaturUSA
  38. 38.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthAarhus UniversityAalborgDenmark
  39. 39.Department of EpidemiologyGlaxoSmithKlineResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  40. 40.Karmanos Cancer Institute, Department of OncologyWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  41. 41.International Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance
  42. 42.Bureau of Epidemiologic ResearchAcademy of AthensAthensGreece
  43. 43.Department of Chronic Disease PreventionNational Institute for Health and WelfareHelsinkiFinland
  44. 44.Department of Medical OncologyDana-Farber Cancer InstituteBostonUSA
  45. 45.Department of Laboratory Medicine/Pathology, School of MedicineUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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