Fish intake, cooking practices, and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multi-ethnic case–control study
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Studies conducted to assess the association between fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk are inconclusive. However, few studies have distinguished between fatty and lean fish, and no studies have considered the role of different cooking practices, which may lead to differential accumulation of chemical carcinogens. In this study, we investigated the association between fish intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account fish types (lean vs. fatty) and cooking practices.
We analyzed data for 1,096 controls, 717 localized and 1,140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case–control study. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios using nutrient density converted variables of fried fish, tuna, dark fish and white fish consumption. We tested for effect modification by cooking methods (high- vs. low-temperature methods) and levels of doneness.
We observed that high white fish intake was associated with increased risk of advanced PCA among men who cooked with high-temperature methods (pan-frying, oven-broiling and grilling) until fish was well done (p trend = 0.001). No associations were found among men who cooked fish at low temperature and/or just until done (white fish x cooking method p interaction = 0.040).
Our results indicate that consideration of fish type (oily vs. lean), specific fish cooking practices and levels of doneness of cooked fish helps elucidate the association between fish intake and PCA risk and suggest that avoiding high-temperature cooking methods for white fish may lower PCA risk.
KeywordsCooking methods Doneness of fish Prostate cancer Fish
Body mass index
Food frequency questionnaire
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Random digit dialing
San Francisco Bay Area
Surveillance, epidemiology, and end result
We are grateful to the men who participated in this study without whom this research would not be possible. We also thank Mr. Chris Yoon for data cleaning. MCS received support from the Prostate Cancer Foundation and grant 5P30 ES07048 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The Northern and Southern California studies were funded by grants 864A-8702-S3514 and 99-00527 V-10182 (to EMJ) and 99-00524 V-10258 (to SAI) from the Cancer Research Fund, under Interagency Agreement #97-12013 (University of California contract #98-00924 V) with the Department of Health Services Cancer Research Program and by grant R01CA84979 (to SAI) from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. Cancer incidence data used in this publication have been collected by the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, of the Cancer Prevention Institute of California, under contract N01-PC-35136 with the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and with support of the California Cancer Registry, a project of the Cancer Surveillance Section, California Department of Health Services, under subcontract 1006128 with the Public Health Institute and the Los Angeles Cancer Surveillance Program of the University of Southern California with Federal funds from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. N01-PC-35139, and the California Department of Health Services as part of the statewide cancer reporting program mandated by California Health and Safety Code Section 103885, and grant number 1U58DP000807-3 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mention of trade names, commercial products, specific equipment or organizations does not constitute endorsement, guarantee or warranty by the State of California Department of Health Services or the US Government, nor does it imply approval to the exclusion of other products. The views expressed in this publication represent those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policies of the Cancer Prevention Institute of California, the California Public Health Institute, the State of California Department of Health Services, or the US Department of Health and Human Services.
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