Case–control study of smoking and non-melanoma skin cancer
To investigate the association between cigarette smoking and basal and squamous cell carcinomas (BCC and SCC) of the skin, a clinic-based case–control study was conducted in Tampa, FL.
Patients with histologically confirmed BCC/SCC were recruited from a university dermatology clinic (n = 215 BCC, 165 SCC). Controls were comprised of individuals with no history of skin cancer who screened negative for skin cancer upon physical examination at the affiliated cancer screening or primary care clinics (n = 315). Information on smoking and other risk factors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires.
After adjustment for age, sex, and other skin cancer–risk factors, ever smoking was not associated with BCC (odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83–1.92), but was statistically significantly associated with SCC (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.19–3.26), with significant trends observed for SCC associated with increasing cigarettes per day (p = 0.01) and pack-years smoked (p = 0.01). Among men, smoking ≥20 pack-years was associated with non-significant increased risks of BCC (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 0.88–4.12) and SCC (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 0.84–4.66), whereas among women, no association was observed with BCC (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.39–2.46) while a statistically significant three-fold risk was observed with SCC (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.02–8.80).
Cigarette smoking is more strongly associated with SCC than BCC, particularly among women.