Cancer Causes & Control

, 22:1497 | Cite as

Ecological study for refrigerator use, salt, vegetable, and fruit intakes, and gastric cancer

  • Boyoung Park
  • Aesun ShinEmail author
  • Sue K. Park
  • Kwang-Pil Ko
  • Seung Hyun Ma
  • Eun-Ha Lee
  • Jin Gwack
  • En-Joo Jung
  • Lisa Y. Cho
  • Jae Jeong Yang
  • Keun-Young YooEmail author
Original paper


We used an ecological approach to determine the correlation between vegetable, fruit and salt intakes, refrigerator use, and gastric cancer mortality in Korean population. Information on fruit and vegetable intakes per capita from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, death certificate data from the National Statistical office, refrigerator per household data from Korean Statistical Information Service, and salt/sodium intake data from a cross-sectional survey were utilized. Correlation coefficients were calculated between vegetable and fruit intakes, refrigerator per household, and gastric cancer mortality and between salt and sodium intakes, and gastric cancer mortality and incidence in the four areas. With 5, 10, and 15 years lag time, refrigerator usage and fruit intake were negatively associated with gastric cancer mortality (p < 0.01), but vegetable intake was not associated with gastric cancer mortality. When estimates of salt/sodium intake evaluated by 24-h urine collection in four areas of Korea were compared to the gastric cancer mortality and incidence in these regions, positive correlation was shown between salt/sodium intake, and gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Negative associations between refrigerator use, fruit intake, and gastric cancer mortality and positive associations between salt/sodium intake and gastric cancer mortality and incidence were suggested.


Stomach neoplasms Sodium Vegetables Fruit 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boyoung Park
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Aesun Shin
    • 4
    Email author
  • Sue K. Park
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kwang-Pil Ko
    • 5
  • Seung Hyun Ma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eun-Ha Lee
    • 3
  • Jin Gwack
    • 6
  • En-Joo Jung
    • 1
  • Lisa Y. Cho
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jae Jeong Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Keun-Young Yoo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Preventive MedicineSeoul National University College of MedicineChongno-guKorea
  2. 2.Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer CenterGoyangKorea
  4. 4.Cancer Epidemiology BranchNational Cancer CenterIlsandong-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-doKorea
  5. 5.Department of Preventive MedicineGachon University of Medicine and ScienceIncheonKorea
  6. 6.Division of Epidemic Intelligence ServiceKorea Centers for Disease Control & PreventionSeoulKorea

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