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Cancer Causes & Control

, 22:1483 | Cite as

Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection among US men

  • Hind A. Beydoun
  • Monal R. Shroff
  • Ravinder Mohan
  • May A. Beydoun
Original paper

Abstract

Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection were evaluated among 3,927 US men, 40–85 years of age, who participated in the 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Five recommended definitions of prostate cancer detection were adopted using total and free prostate-specific antigen (tPSA and fPSA) laboratory measurements. Men were identified as high risk based on alternative cutoffs, namely tPSA > 10 ng/ml, tPSA > 4 ng/ml, tPSA > 2.5 ng/ml, %fPSA < 25%, and %fPSA < 15%. %fPSA was defined as (fPSA÷tPSA)× 100%. Serum levels of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters) and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene) were defined as quartiles and examined as risk/protective factors for PSA biomarkers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using binary logistic models. After adjustment for known demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle confounders, high serum levels of retinyl esters (tPSA > 10 ng/ml: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14–1.00) and α-carotene (%fPSA < 15%: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32–0.76) were associated with a lower odds, whereas high serum level of lycopene (tPSA > 2.5 ng/ml: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01–2.14) was associated with a greater odds of prostate cancer detection. Apart from the three significant associations observed, no other exposure–outcome association was significant. Monitoring specific antioxidant levels may be helpful in the early detection of prostate cancer.

Keywords

Vitamin A Carotenoids Prostate cancer Prostate-specific antigen 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

CI

Confidence interval

DRE

Digital rectal exam

fPSA

Free prostate-specific antigen

%fPSA

Percent free prostate-specific antigen

Q1

First quartile

Q2

Second quartile

Q3

Third quartile

Q4

Fourth quartile

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

OR

Odds ratio

PCa

Prostate cancer

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

tPSA

Total prostate-specific antigen

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was partly supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute on Aging. We would like to thank Dr. Larry Brant and Dr. Joshua Goh for providing useful comments regarding the content of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hind A. Beydoun
    • 1
  • Monal R. Shroff
    • 2
  • Ravinder Mohan
    • 3
  • May A. Beydoun
    • 4
  1. 1.Graduate Program in Public HealthEastern Virginia Medical SchoolNorfolkUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of Family MedicineEastern Virginia Medical SchoolNorfolkUSA
  4. 4.NIH/Intramural Research ProgramNational Institute on AgingBaltimoreUSA

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