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Cancer Causes & Control

, 22:1217 | Cite as

An examination of male and female odds ratios by BMI, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx in pooled data from 15 case–control studies

  • Jay H. LubinEmail author
  • Joshua Muscat
  • Mia M. Gaudet
  • Andrew F. Olshan
  • Maria Paula Curado
  • Luigino Dal Maso
  • Victor Wünsch-Filho
  • Erich M. Sturgis
  • Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska
  • Xavier Castellsague
  • Zuo-Feng Zhang
  • Elaine Smith
  • Leticia Fernandez
  • Elena Matos
  • Silvia Franceschi
  • Eleonora Fabianova
  • Peter Rudnai
  • Mark P. Purdue
  • Dana Mates
  • Qingyi Wei
  • Rolando Herrero
  • Karl Kelsey
  • Hal Morgenstern
  • Oxana Shangina
  • Sergio Koifman
  • Jolanta Lissowska
  • Fabio Levi
  • Alexander W. Daudt
  • Jose Eluf Neto
  • Chu Chen
  • Philip Lazarus
  • Deborah M. Winn
  • Stephen M. Schwartz
  • Paolo Boffetta
  • Paul Brennan
  • Ana Menezes
  • Carlo La Vecchia
  • Michael McClean
  • Renato Talamini
  • Thangarajan Rajkumar
  • Richard B. Hayes
  • Mia Hashibe
Original paper

Abstract

Background

Greater tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption and lower body mass index (BMI) increase odds ratios (OR) for oral cavity, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers; however, there are no comprehensive sex-specific comparisons of ORs for these factors.

Methods

We analyzed 2,441 oral cavity (925 women and 1,516 men), 2,297 oropharynx (564 women and 1,733 men), 508 hypopharynx (96 women and 412 men), and 1,740 larynx (237 women and 1,503 men) cases from the INHANCE consortium of 15 head and neck cancer case–control studies. Controls numbered from 7,604 to 13,829 subjects, depending on analysis. Analyses fitted linear-exponential excess ORs models.

Results

ORs were increased in underweight (<18.5 BMI) relative to normal weight (18.5–24.9) and reduced in overweight and obese categories (≥25 BMI) for all sites and were homogeneous by sex. ORs by smoking and drinking in women compared with men were significantly greater for oropharyngeal cancer (p < 0.01 for both factors), suggestive for hypopharyngeal cancer (p = 0.05 and p = 0.06, respectively), but homogeneous for oral cavity (p = 0.56 and p = 0.64) and laryngeal (p = 0.18 and p = 0.72) cancers.

Conclusions

The extent that OR modifications of smoking and drinking by sex for oropharyngeal and, possibly, hypopharyngeal cancers represent true associations, or derive from unmeasured confounders or unobserved sex-related disease subtypes (e.g., human papillomavirus–positive oropharyngeal cancer) remains to be clarified.

Keywords

Alcohol consumption Cigarette smoking Interactions Odds ratio models 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services and by a grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (P30ES10126).

Supplementary material

10552_2011_9792_MOESM1_ESM.doc (108 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 108 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA)  2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay H. Lubin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joshua Muscat
    • 2
  • Mia M. Gaudet
    • 3
  • Andrew F. Olshan
    • 4
  • Maria Paula Curado
    • 5
  • Luigino Dal Maso
    • 6
  • Victor Wünsch-Filho
    • 7
  • Erich M. Sturgis
    • 8
  • Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska
    • 9
  • Xavier Castellsague
    • 10
  • Zuo-Feng Zhang
    • 11
  • Elaine Smith
    • 12
  • Leticia Fernandez
    • 13
  • Elena Matos
    • 14
  • Silvia Franceschi
    • 5
  • Eleonora Fabianova
    • 15
  • Peter Rudnai
    • 16
  • Mark P. Purdue
    • 1
  • Dana Mates
    • 17
  • Qingyi Wei
    • 8
  • Rolando Herrero
    • 18
  • Karl Kelsey
    • 19
  • Hal Morgenstern
    • 20
  • Oxana Shangina
    • 21
  • Sergio Koifman
    • 22
  • Jolanta Lissowska
    • 23
  • Fabio Levi
    • 24
  • Alexander W. Daudt
    • 25
  • Jose Eluf Neto
    • 7
  • Chu Chen
    • 26
  • Philip Lazarus
    • 2
  • Deborah M. Winn
    • 27
  • Stephen M. Schwartz
    • 26
  • Paolo Boffetta
    • 5
    • 28
  • Paul Brennan
    • 5
  • Ana Menezes
    • 29
  • Carlo La Vecchia
    • 30
  • Michael McClean
    • 31
  • Renato Talamini
    • 6
  • Thangarajan Rajkumar
    • 32
  • Richard B. Hayes
    • 33
  • Mia Hashibe
    • 34
  1. 1.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer InstituteRockvilleUSA
  2. 2.Penn State College of MedicineHersheyUSA
  3. 3.Epidemiology Research ProgramAmerican Cancer SocietyAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  5. 5.International Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance
  6. 6.Epidemiology and Biostatistics UnitAviano Cancer CentreAvianoItaly
  7. 7.Universidade de Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil
  8. 8.UT-M.D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  9. 9.Institute of Occupational MedicineLodzPoland
  10. 10.Institut Català d’Oncologia (ICO), IDIBELL, CIBER-ESPL’Hospitalet de LlobregatBarcelonaSpain
  11. 11.UCLA School of Public HealthLos AngelesUSA
  12. 12.College of Public HealthUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  13. 13.Institute of Oncology and RadiobiologyHavanaCuba
  14. 14.Institute of Oncology Angel H. RoffoUniversity of Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  15. 15.Specialized State Health InstituteBanská BystricaSlovakia
  16. 16.National Institute of Environmental HealthBudapestHungary
  17. 17.Occupational Health DepartmentInstitute of Public HealthBucharestRomania
  18. 18.Instituto de Investigación EpidemiológicaSan JoséCosta Rica
  19. 19.Bio Medical Center for Environmental Health and TechnologyBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  20. 20.Departments of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, and Comprehensive Cancer CenterUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  21. 21.Cancer Research CentreMoscowRussia
  22. 22.Escola Nacional de Saude PublicaRio de JaneiroBrazil
  23. 23.Department of Cancer Epidemiology and PreventionThe M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of OncologyWarsawPoland
  24. 24.Institut de médecine sociale et préventiveUniversité de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  25. 25.Hospital de Clinicas de Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil
  26. 26.Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  27. 27.Division of Cancer Control and Population SciencesNational Cancer InstituteRockvilleUSA
  28. 28.Mount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  29. 29.Universidade Federal de PelotasPelotasBrazil
  30. 30.Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri and University of MilanMilanItaly
  31. 31.Boston University School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  32. 32.Department of Molecular OncologyCancer Institute (WIA)ChennaiIndia
  33. 33.Division of Epidemiology, Langone Medical CenterNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  34. 34.Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Huntsman Cancer InstituteUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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