Advertisement

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 909–918 | Cite as

Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

  • Jakob LinseisenEmail author
  • Sabine Rohrmann
  • Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
  • Frederike L. Büchner
  • Hendriek C. Boshuizen
  • Antonio Agudo
  • Inger Torhild Gram
  • Christina C. Dahm
  • Kim Overvad
  • Rikke Egeberg
  • Anne Tjønneland
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Annika Steffen
  • Rudolf Kaaks
  • Annekatrin Lukanova
  • Franco Berrino
  • Domenico Palli
  • Salvatore Panico
  • Rosario Tumino
  • Eva Ardanaz
  • Miren Dorronsoro
  • José-Maria Huerta
  • Laudina Rodríguez
  • María-José Sánchez
  • Torgny Rasmuson
  • Göran Hallmans
  • Jonas Manjer
  • Elisabet Wirfält
  • Dagrun Engeset
  • Guri Skeie
  • Michael Katsoulis
  • Eleni Oikonomou
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
  • Petra H. M. Peeters
  • Kay-Tee Khaw
  • Nicholas Wareham
  • Naomi Allen
  • Tim Key
  • Paul Brennan
  • Isabelle Romieu
  • Nadia Slimani
  • Anne-Claire Vergnaud
  • Wei W. Xun
  • Paolo Vineis
  • Elio Riboli
Original paper

Abstract

Evidence from case–control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992–2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89–1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95–1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer.

Keywords

Lung cancer Diet Epidemiology Meat Fish EPIC 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work described in the paper was carried out with the financial support of the “Europe Against Cancer” Programme of the European Commission (SANCO); Ligue contre le Cancer (France); Société 3 M (France); Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM); Institut Gustave Roussy; Deutsche Krebshilfe; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum; German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; Danish Cancer Society; ISCIII of the Spanish Ministry of Health (RETICC DR06/0020); Health Research Fund (FIS) of the Spanish Ministry of Health; the Spanish Regional Governments of Andalucia, Asturias, Basque Country, Murcia and Navarra; Cancer Research UK; Medical Research Council, UK; the Stroke Association, UK; British Heart Foundation; Department of Health, UK; Food Standards Agency, UK; the Wellcome Trust, UK; Hellenic Ministry of Health; Stavros Niarchos Foundation; Hellenic Health Foundation; Italian Association for Research on Cancer; Italian National Research Council; Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (VWS), Netherlands Cancer Registry (NKR), LK Research Funds, Dutch Prevention Funds, Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland), World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), Statistics Netherlands(The Netherlands); Nordforsk; Swedish Cancer Society; Swedish Scientific Council; Regional Government of Skane and Västerbotten, Sweden.

References

  1. 1.
    American Institute for Cancer Research/World Cancer Research Fund (2007) Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. AICR, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sinha R, Kulldorff M, Curtin J et al (1998) Fried, well-done red meat and risk of lung cancer in women (United States). Cancer Causes Control 9:621–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sinha R, Kulldorff M, Swanson CA et al (2000) Dietary heterocyclic amines and the risk of lung cancer among Missouri women. Cancer Res 60:3753–3756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tasevska N, Sinha R, Kipnis V et al (2009) A prospective study of meat, cooking methods, meat mutagens, heme iron, and lung cancer risks. Am J Clin Nutr 89:1884–1894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ko YC, Lee CH, Chen MJ et al (1997) Risk factors for primary lung cancer among non-smoking women in Taiwan. Int J Epidemiol 26:24–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Skog KI, Johansson MA, Jagerstad MI (1998) Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in model systems and cooked foods: a review on formation, occurrence and intake. Food Chem Toxicol 36:879–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lijinsky W, Ross AE (1967) Production of carcinogenic polynuclear hydrocarbons in the cooking of food. Food Cosmet Toxicol 5:343–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lijinsky W (1999) N-Nitroso compounds in the diet. Mutat Res 443:129–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Linseisen J, Rohrmann S, Norat T et al (2006) Dietary intake of different types and characteristics of processed meat which might be associated with cancer risk-results from the 24-h diet recalls in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Public Health Nutr 9:449–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hughes R, Cross AJ, Pollock JR et al (2001) Dose-dependent effect of dietary meat on endogenous colonic N-nitrosation. Carcinogenesis 22:199–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Linseisen J, Wolfram G, Miller AB (2002) Plasma 7beta-hydroxycholesterol as a possible predictor of lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:1630–1637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tasevska N, Cross AJ, Dodd KW et al (2011) No effect of meat, meat cooking preferences, meat mutagens or heme iron on lung cancer risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial. Int J Cancer 128:402–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fraser GE, Beeson WL, Phillips RL (1991) Diet and lung cancer in California seventh-day Adventists. Am J Epidemiol 133:683–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Seppanen R et al (1991) Dietary antioxidants and the risk of lung cancer. Am J Epidemiol 134:471–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shekelle RB, Rossof AH, Stamler J (1991) Dietary cholesterol and incidence of lung cancer: the Western Electric Study. Am J Epidemiol 134:480–484 discussion 543–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Veierod MB, Laake P, Thelle DS (1997) Dietary fat intake and risk of lung cancer: a prospective study of 51,452 Norwegian men and women. Eur J Cancer Prev 6:540–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chow WH, Schuman LM, McLaughlin JK et al (1992) A cohort study of tobacco use, diet, occupation, and lung cancer mortality. Cancer Causes Control 3:247–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kvale G, Bjelke E, Gart JJ (1983) Dietary habits and lung cancer risk. Int J Cancer 31:397–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khan MM, Goto R, Kobayashi K et al (2004) Dietary habits and cancer mortality among middle aged and older Japanese living in Hokkaido, Japan by cancer site and sex. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 5:58–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ozasa K, Watanabe Y, Ito Y et al (2001) Dietary habits and risk of lung cancer death in a large-scale cohort study (JACC Study) in Japan by sex and smoking habit. Jpn J Cancer Res 92:1259–1269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Riboli E, Hunt KJ, Slimani N et al (2002) European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection. Public Health Nutr 5:1113–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bingham SA, Gill C, Welch A et al (1994) Comparison of dietary assessment methods in nutritional epidemiology: weighed records v. 24 h recalls, food-frequency questionnaires and estimated-diet records. Br J Nutr 72:619–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Linseisen J, Rohrmann S, Miller AB et al (2007) Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: updated information from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer 121:1103–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wareham NJ, Jakes RW, Rennie KL et al (2003) Validity and repeatability of a simple index derived from the short physical activity questionnaire used in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. Public Health Nutr 6:407–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Slimani N, Kaaks R, Ferrari P et al (2002) European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics. Public Health Nutr 5:1125–1145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Slimani N, Ferrari P, Ocke M et al (2000) Standardization of the 24-h diet recall calibration method used in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC): general concepts and preliminary results. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:900–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ferrari P, Kaaks R, Fahey MT et al (2004) Within- and between-cohort variation in measured macronutrient intakes, taking account of measurement errors, in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study. Am J Epidemiol 160:814–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ferrari P, Day NE, Boshuizen HC et al (2008) The evaluation of the diet/disease relation in the EPIC study: considerations for the calibration and the disease models. Int J Epidemiol 37:368–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Smith-Warner SA, Ritz J, Hunter DJ et al (2002) Dietary fat and risk of lung cancer in a pooled analysis of prospective studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:987–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Breslow RA, Graubard BI, Sinha R et al (2000) Diet and lung cancer mortality: a 1987 National Health Interview Survey cohort study. Cancer Causes Control 11:419–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Welch AA, Lund E, Amiano P et al (2002) Variability of fish consumption within the 10 European countries participating in the European investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. Public Health Nutr 5:1273–1285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Linseisen J, Kesse E, Slimani N et al (2002) Meat consumption in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohorts: results from 24-h dietary recalls. Public Health Nutr 5:1243–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kaaks R, Riboli E (1997) Validation and calibration of dietary intake measurements in the EPIC project: methodological considerations. European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Int J Epidemiol 26(Suppl 1):S15–S25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Day N, McKeown N, Wong M et al (2001) Epidemiological assessment of diet: a comparison of a 7-day diary with a food frequency questionnaire using urinary markers of nitrogen, potassium and sodium. Int J Epidemiol 30:309–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kipnis V, Midthune D, Freedman LS et al (2001) Empirical evidence of correlated biases in dietary assessment instruments and its implications. Am J Epidemiol 153:394–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hu J, Mao Y, Dryer D et al (2002) Risk factors for lung cancer among Canadian women who have never smoked. Cancer Detect Prev 26:129–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brennan P, Fortes C, Butler J et al (2000) A multicenter case-control study of diet and lung cancer among non-smokers. Cancer Causes Control 11:49–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jakob Linseisen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sabine Rohrmann
    • 2
    • 3
  • Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
    • 4
    • 5
  • Frederike L. Büchner
    • 4
  • Hendriek C. Boshuizen
    • 4
  • Antonio Agudo
    • 6
  • Inger Torhild Gram
    • 7
  • Christina C. Dahm
    • 8
    • 9
  • Kim Overvad
    • 9
  • Rikke Egeberg
    • 10
  • Anne Tjønneland
    • 10
  • Heiner Boeing
    • 11
  • Annika Steffen
    • 11
  • Rudolf Kaaks
    • 2
  • Annekatrin Lukanova
    • 2
  • Franco Berrino
    • 12
  • Domenico Palli
    • 13
  • Salvatore Panico
    • 14
  • Rosario Tumino
    • 15
  • Eva Ardanaz
    • 16
  • Miren Dorronsoro
    • 17
  • José-Maria Huerta
    • 18
  • Laudina Rodríguez
    • 19
  • María-José Sánchez
    • 20
  • Torgny Rasmuson
    • 21
  • Göran Hallmans
    • 22
  • Jonas Manjer
    • 23
  • Elisabet Wirfält
    • 24
  • Dagrun Engeset
    • 7
  • Guri Skeie
    • 7
  • Michael Katsoulis
    • 25
  • Eleni Oikonomou
    • 26
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
    • 25
    • 26
  • Petra H. M. Peeters
    • 27
  • Kay-Tee Khaw
    • 28
  • Nicholas Wareham
    • 29
  • Naomi Allen
    • 30
  • Tim Key
    • 30
  • Paul Brennan
    • 31
  • Isabelle Romieu
    • 31
  • Nadia Slimani
    • 31
  • Anne-Claire Vergnaud
    • 32
  • Wei W. Xun
    • 32
  • Paolo Vineis
    • 33
    • 34
  • Elio Riboli
    • 32
  1. 1.Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum MünchenNeuherbergGermany
  2. 2.Division of Cancer EpidemiologyGerman Cancer Research CenterHeidelbergGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Social and Preventive MedicineUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)BilthovenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity Medical Centre Utrecht (UMCU)UtrechtThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Catalan Institute of OncologyIDIBELL (Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute), L’Hospitalet de LlobregatBarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.Institute of Community MedicineUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway
  8. 8.Department of Clinical EpidemiologyAarhus University HospitalAalborgDenmark
  9. 9.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  10. 10.Institute of Cancer EpidemiologyDanish Cancer SocietyCopenhagenDenmark
  11. 11.Department of EpidemiologyGerman Institute of Human NutritionNuthetalGermany
  12. 12.Epidemiology Unit, Instituto TumoriMilanItaly
  13. 13.Molecular and Nutritional EpidemiologyUnit Cancer Research and Prevention Institute, ISPOFlorenceItaly
  14. 14.Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Federico II UniversityNaplesItaly
  15. 15.Cancer Registry and Histopathology Unit“Civile M.P.Arezzo” HospitalRagusaItaly
  16. 16.Public Health Institute of NavarraCIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP)PamplonaSpain
  17. 17.Public Health Department of Gipuzkoa, Spain Department of Public Health of GipuzkoaCIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP)San SebastianSpain
  18. 18.Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health AuthorityCIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP)MurciaSpain
  19. 19.Public Health and Participation DirectorateHealth and Health Care Services CouncilAsturiasSpain
  20. 20.Andalusian School of Public HealthCIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP)GranadaSpain
  21. 21.Department of Radiation Sciences, OncologyUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  22. 22.Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional ResearchUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  23. 23.Department of SurgerySkåne University Hospital Malmö, Lund UniversityMalmöSweden
  24. 24.Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö/Nutrition EpidemiologyLund UniversityMalmöSweden
  25. 25.Hellenic Health FoundationAthensGreece
  26. 26.WHO Collaborating Center for Food and Nutrition Policies, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical StatisticsUniversity of Athens Medical SchoolAthensGreece
  27. 27.Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary CareUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  28. 28.Department of Public Health and Primary CareUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  29. 29.Epidemiology Unit, Medical Research Council (MRC)CambridgeUK
  30. 30.Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical MedicineUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  31. 31.International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)LyonFrance
  32. 32.Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public HealthImperial College LondonLondonUK
  33. 33.ISI FoundationTurinItaly
  34. 34.Environmental EpidemiologyImperial College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations