Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 375–387

Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cardia cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Marlene Cavaleiro-Pinto
  • Bárbara Peleteiro
  • Nuno Lunet
  • Henrique Barros
Original paper

Abstract

Objective

Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important risk factor for gastric cancer, but no association with cardia cancer has been recognized. However, a heterogeneous distribution of etiologically distinct types of cardia cancer may contribute to explain conflicting findings between studies in high- and low-risk settings. We aimed to quantify the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cardia cancer through meta-analysis, and to provide an explanation for the expected heterogeneity of results.

Methods

We systematically reviewed published studies addressing the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cardia cancer (up to June 2009), and extracted relative risk (RR) estimates for the association with cardia and non-cardia cancers. Summary RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses were conducted, namely according to gastric cancer risk settings.

Results

Thirty-four articles were considered for meta-analysis. For cardia cancer, summary RR was 1.08 (95% CI 0.83–1.40; I2 = 52.8%), higher in high-risk (RR = 1.98; 95% CI 1.38–2.83; I2 = 18.4%) than in low-risk settings (RR = 0.78; 95% CI 0.63–0.97; I2 = 11.6%). For non-cardia cancer, RR estimates were similar in high- (RR = 3.02; 95% CI 1.92–4.74; I2 = 90.7%) and low-risk settings (RR = 2.56; 95% CI 1.99–3.29; I2 = 46.6%). These observations were consistent across different inclusion criteria and when accounting for the virulence of the infecting strains.

Conclusions

In high-risk settings, a positive association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer was observed both for cardia and non-cardia cancers. The results support the hypothesis of a heterogeneous distribution of etiologically distinct types of cardia cancer.

Keywords

Helicobacter pylori Cardia Stomach neoplasms Systematic review Meta-analysis 

Supplementary material

10552_2010_9707_MOESM1_ESM.doc (804 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 804 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marlene Cavaleiro-Pinto
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bárbara Peleteiro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nuno Lunet
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Henrique Barros
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Hygiene and EpidemiologyUniversity of Porto Medical SchoolPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Institute of Public HealthUniversity of Porto (ISPUP)PortoPortugal
  3. 3.Serviço de Higiene e EpidemiologiaFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade do PortoPortoPortugal

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