Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 319–340

Associations of circulating and dietary vitamin D with prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis

  • Rebecca Gilbert
  • Richard M. Martin
  • Rebecca Beynon
  • Ross Harris
  • Jelena Savovic
  • Luisa Zuccolo
  • Geertruida E. Bekkering
  • William D. Fraser
  • Jonathan A. C. Sterne
  • Chris Metcalfe
Review article

Abstract

Objective

We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed literature examining associations of vitamin D (dietary intake, circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D (25(OH)D), and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin-D (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations) with prostate cancer.

Methods

We searched over 24,000 papers from seven electronic databases (to October 2010) for exposures related to vitamin D. We conducted dose–response random-effects meta-analyses pooling the log odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) per change in natural units of each exposure. The I2 statistic quantified between-study variation due to heterogeneity.

Results

Twenty-five papers were included. In prospective studies, the OR per 1,000 IU increase in dietary intake was 1.14 (6 studies; CI: 0.99, 1.31; I2 = 0%) for total prostate cancer and 0.93 (3 studies; 0.63, 1.39; I2 = 25%) for aggressive prostate cancer. Five case–control studies examined dietary intake, but there was a high degree of inconsistency between studies (I2 = 49%). The OR per 10 ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D was 1.04 (14 studies; 0.99, 1.10; I2 = 0%) for total prostate cancer and 0.98 (6 studies; 0.84, 1.15; I2 = 32%) for aggressive prostate cancer. The OR per 10 pg/mL increase in 1,25(OH)2D was 1.00 (7 studies; 0.87, 1.14; I2 = 41%) for total prostate cancer and 0.86 (2 studies; 0.72, 1.02; I2 = 0%) for aggressive prostate cancer.

Conclusion

Published literature provides little evidence to support a major role of vitamin D in preventing prostate cancer or its progression.

Keywords

Vitamin D Prostatic neoplasms Review Meta-analysis Epidemiology 

Supplementary material

10552_2010_9706_MOESM1_ESM.doc (34 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 33 kb)
10552_2010_9706_MOESM2_ESM.tif (77 kb)
Forest plot showing the association of circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D with aggressive prostate cancer (OR per 10 ng/mL increase). Footnotes: Studies ordered by study design and year of publication. Median vitamin D level is estimated, for the control group only where possible, from the available data. If median could not be estimated, the mean in the control group is given (*). P is p-value for heterogeneity. IV = inverse variance, CI = confidence interval (TIFF 76 kb)
10552_2010_9706_MOESM3_ESM.tif (1.4 mb)
Funnel plots (TIFF 1383 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca Gilbert
    • 1
  • Richard M. Martin
    • 1
  • Rebecca Beynon
    • 1
  • Ross Harris
    • 2
  • Jelena Savovic
    • 1
  • Luisa Zuccolo
    • 1
  • Geertruida E. Bekkering
    • 3
    • 4
  • William D. Fraser
    • 5
  • Jonathan A. C. Sterne
    • 1
  • Chris Metcalfe
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Social and Community MedicineUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  2. 2.Statistics UnitHealth Protection Agency, Centre for InfectionsLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of General PracticeKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  4. 4.BeSyRe Bekkering Systematic ReviewsGeelBelgium
  5. 5.Unit of Clinical ChemistrySchool of Clinical Sciences, University of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

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