Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 237–249 | Cite as

Dietary phytocompounds and risk of lymphoid malignancies in the California Teachers Study cohort

  • Ellen T. Chang
  • Alison J. Canchola
  • Christina A. Clarke
  • Yani Lu
  • Dee W. West
  • Leslie Bernstein
  • Sophia S. Wang
  • Pamela L. Horn-Ross
Original paper



We examined whether dietary intake of isoflavones, lignans, isothiocyanates, antioxidants, or specific foods rich in these compounds is associated with reduced risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in a large, prospective cohort of women.


Between 1995–1996 and 31 December 2007, among 110,215 eligible members of the California Teachers Study cohort, 536 women developed incident B-cell NHL, 104 developed MM, and 34 developed HL. Cox proportional hazards regression, with age as the time scale, was used to estimate adjusted rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of lymphoid malignancies.


Weak inverse associations with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were observed for isothiocyanates (RR for ≥12.1 vs. <2.7 mcM/day = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.43–1.05) and an antioxidant index measuring hydroxyl radical absorbance capacity (RR for ≥2.2 vs. <0.9 μM Trolox equiv/g/day = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.42–1.10; p trend = 0.08). Risk of other NHL subtypes, overall B-cell NHL, MM, or HL was not generally associated with dietary intake of isoflavones, lignans, isothiocyanates, antioxidants, or major food sources of these compounds.


Isoflavones, lignans, isothiocyanates, and antioxidant compounds are not associated with risk of most B-cell malignancies, but some phytocompounds may decrease the risk of selected subtypes.


Lymphoma Diet Isothiocyanates Antioxidants Cohort studies 



The authors would like to thank the CTS Steering Committee members who are responsible for the formation and maintenance of the cohort within which this study was conducted, but who did not directly contribute to the current paper: Hoda Anton-Culver, Dennis Deapen, Katherine D. Henderson, James V. Lacey, Jr., Huiyan Ma, David O. Nelson, Susan L. Neuhausen, Rich Pinder, Peggy Reynolds, Fredrick Schumacher, Daniel O. Stram, Giske Ursin, and Argyrios Ziogas. This research was supported by grants R03-CA135687, R01-CA77398, and K05-CA136967 from the National Cancer Institute and contract 97-10500 from the California Breast Cancer Research fund. The funding sources did not contribute to the design or conduct of the study, nor to the writing or submission of this manuscript. The collection of cancer incidence data used in this study was supported by the California Department of Health Services as part of the statewide cancer reporting program mandated by California Health and Safety Code Section 103885; the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program under contract N01-PC-35136 awarded to the Cancer Prevention Institute of California (formerly the Northern California Cancer Center), contract N01-PC-35139 awarded to the University of Southern California, and contract N02-PC-15105 awarded to the Public Health Institute; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries, under agreement #U55/CCR921930-02 awarded to the Public Health Institute. The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and endorsement by the State of California, Department of Health Services, the National Cancer Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their contractors and subcontractors is not intended nor should be inferred.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ellen T. Chang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alison J. Canchola
    • 1
  • Christina A. Clarke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yani Lu
    • 3
  • Dee W. West
    • 1
    • 2
  • Leslie Bernstein
    • 3
  • Sophia S. Wang
    • 3
  • Pamela L. Horn-Ross
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cancer Prevention Institute of CaliforniaFremontCalifornia
  2. 2.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and PolicyStanford University School of MedicineStanfordCalifornia
  3. 3.Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population SciencesCity of Hope National Medical CenterDuarteCalifornia

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