Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 8, pp 1305–1314

Body mass index, effect modifiers, and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled study of seven prospective cohorts

  • Li Jiao
  • Amy Berrington de Gonzalez
  • Patricia Hartge
  • Ruth M. Pfeiffer
  • Yikyung Park
  • D. Michal Freedman
  • Mitchell H. Gail
  • Michael C. R. Alavanja
  • Demetrius Albanes
  • Laura E. Beane Freeman
  • Wong-Ho Chow
  • Wen-Yi Huang
  • Richard B. Hayes
  • Jane A. Hoppin
  • Bu-tian Ji
  • Michael F. Leitzmann
  • Martha S. Linet
  • Cari L. Meinhold
  • Catherine Schairer
  • Arthur Schatzkin
  • Jarmo Virtamo
  • Stephanie J. Weinstein
  • Wei Zheng
  • Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon
Original paper

Abstract

Objective

To investigate whether the positive association of body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) with risk of pancreatic cancer is modified by age, sex, smoking status, physical activity, and history of diabetes.

Methods

In a pooled analysis of primary data of seven prospective cohorts including 458,070 men and 485,689 women, we identified 2,454 patients with incident pancreatic cancer during an average 6.9 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used in data analysis.

Results

In a random-effects meta-analysis, for every 5 kg/m2 increment in BMI, the summary relative risk (RR) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99–1.13) for men and 1.12 (95% CI 1.05–1.19) for women. The aggregate analysis showed that compared with normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to <25), the adjusted RR was 1.13 (95% CI 1.03–1.23) for overweight (BMI: 25 to <30) and 1.19 (95% CI 1.05–1.35) for obesity class I (BMI: 30 to <35). Tests of interactions of BMI effects by other risk factors were not statistically significant. Every 5 kg/m2 increment in BMI was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer among never and former smokers, but not among current smokers (P-interaction = 0.08).

Conclusion

The present evidence suggests that a high BMI is an independent risk factor of pancreatic cancer.

Keywords

Pancreatic cancer Body mass index Pooled analysis Prospective cohort Effect modification 

Abbreviation

AARP

National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study

AHS

Agricultural Health Study

ATBC

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study

BCDDP

Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project

BMI

Body mass index

CI

Confidence interval

NCI-DCEG

National Cancer Institute-Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics

PLCO

Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

SD

Standard deviation

SWHS

Shanghai Women’s Health Study

RR

Relative risk

USRT

United States Radiologic Technologists Study

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Copyright information

© US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Li Jiao
    • 1
    • 6
  • Amy Berrington de Gonzalez
    • 1
  • Patricia Hartge
    • 1
  • Ruth M. Pfeiffer
    • 1
  • Yikyung Park
    • 1
  • D. Michal Freedman
    • 1
  • Mitchell H. Gail
    • 1
  • Michael C. R. Alavanja
    • 1
  • Demetrius Albanes
    • 1
  • Laura E. Beane Freeman
    • 1
  • Wong-Ho Chow
    • 1
  • Wen-Yi Huang
    • 1
  • Richard B. Hayes
    • 1
  • Jane A. Hoppin
    • 2
  • Bu-tian Ji
    • 1
  • Michael F. Leitzmann
    • 3
  • Martha S. Linet
    • 1
  • Cari L. Meinhold
    • 1
  • Catherine Schairer
    • 1
  • Arthur Schatzkin
    • 1
  • Jarmo Virtamo
    • 4
  • Stephanie J. Weinstein
    • 1
  • Wei Zheng
    • 5
  • Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Epidemiology BranchNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of HealthResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive MedicineRegensburg University Medical CenterRegensburgGermany
  4. 4.Department of Chronic Disease PreventionNational Institute for Health and WelfareHelsinkiFinland
  5. 5.Division of EpidemiologyVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA
  6. 6.Department of MedicineBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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