Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 1025–1032

History of diabetes mellitus and the risk of prostate cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study

  • Qiang Li
  • Shinichi Kuriyama
  • Masako Kakizaki
  • Hong Yan
  • Toshimasa Sone
  • Masato Nagai
  • Yumi Sugawara
  • Kaori Ohmori-Matsuda
  • Atsushi Hozawa
  • Yoshikazu Nishino
  • Ichiro Tsuji
Original paper

Abstract

Objective

The association between diabetes mellitus and the risk of prostate cancer has been tested in previous prospective cohort studies in western populations. However, no evidence from cohort studies is available for Asian populations, whose lifestyle is very different from that of westerners.

Methods

The authors examined the relationship between diabetes mellitus and the risk of prostate cancer in the Ohsaki cohort followed from 1995 to 2003, in which 230 new cases of prostate cancer were identified among 22,458 Japanese men. Baseline information including diabetes mellitus status was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results

Although a history of diabetes mellitus was not associated with the risk of total prostate cancer in this population, after stratification based on the clinical stage of prostate cancer, patients with diabetes mellitus showed a higher risk of advanced prostate cancer with a multivariate adjusted HR = 1.89 (95% CI: 1.02–3.50). The relationship remained robust when we excluded from the analysis cases arising in the first 2 years.

Conclusion

This population-based prospective cohort study indicates that a history of diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased incidence of advanced prostate cancer.

Keywords

Diabetes mellitus Japan Prospective studies Prostatic neoplasms Incidence 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index.

CI

Confidence interval.

HR

Hazard ratio

NHI

National health insurance

PSA

Prostate specific antigen

References

  1. 1.
    King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH (1998) Global burden of diabetes, 1995–2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care 21:1414–1431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H (2004) Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 27:1047–1053CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Quinn M, Babb P (2002) Patterns and trends in prostate cancer incidence, survival, prevalence and mortality. Part I: international comparisons. BJU Int 90:162–173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nakata S, Takahashi H, Ohtake N, Takei T, Yamanaka H (2000) Trends and characteristics in prostate cancer mortality in Japan. Int J Urol 7:254–257CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    The Editorial Board of the Cancer Statistics in Japan (2005) Cancer Statistics in Japan edition. Foundation for Promotion of Cancer Research, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P (2005) Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 55:74–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Waters KM, Henderson BE, Stram DO, Wan P, Kolonel LN, Haiman CA (2009) Association of diabetes with prostate cancer risk in the multiethnic cohort. Am J Epidemiol 169:937–945CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kasper JS, Liu Y, Giovannucci E (2009) Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer in the health professionals follow-up study. Int J Cancer 124:1398–1403CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Velicer CM, Dublin S, White E (2007) Diabetes and the risk of prostate cancer: the role of diabetes treatment and complications. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 10:46–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Calton BA, Chang SC, Wright ME, Kipnis V, Lawson K, Thompson FE, Subar AF, Mouw T, Campbell DS, Hurwitz P, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A et al (2007) History of diabetes mellitus and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cancer Causes Control 18:493–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rodriguez C, Patel AV, Mondul AM, Jacobs EJ, Thun MJ, Calle EE (2005) Diabetes and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of US men. Am J Epidemiol 161:147–152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weiderpass E, Ye W, Vainio H, Kaaks R, Adami HO (2002) Reduced risk of prostate cancer among patients with diabetes mellitus. Int J Cancer 102:258–261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC (1998) Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 9:3–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wideroff L, Gridley G, Mellemkjaer L, Chow WH, Linet M, Keehn S, Borch-Johnsen K, Olsen JH (1997) Cancer incidence in a population-based cohort of patients hospitalized with diabetes mellitus in Denmark. J Natl Cancer Inst 89:1360–1365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leitzmann MF, Ahn J, Albanes D, Hsing AW, Schatzkin A, Chang SC, Huang WY, Weiss JM, Danforth KN, Grubb RL III, Andriole GL (2008) Diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Causes Control 19:1267–1276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Will JC, Vinicor F, Calle EE (1999) Is diabetes mellitus associated with prostate cancer incidence and survival? Epidemiology 10:313–318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Steenland K, Nowlin S, Palu S (1995) Cancer incidence in the National Health, Nutrition Survey I. Follow-up data: diabetes, cholesterol, pulse and physical activity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4:807–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thompson MM, Garland C, Barrett-Connor E, Khaw KT, Friedlander NJ, Wingard DL (1989) Heart disease risk factors, diabetes, and prostatic cancer in an adult community. Am J Epidemiol 129:511–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ragozzino M, Melton LJ III, Chu CP, Palumbo PJ (1982) Subsequent cancer risk in the incidence cohort of Rochester, Minnesota, residents with diabetes mellitus. J Chronic Dis 35:13–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tsuji I, Nishino Y, Ohkubo T, Kuwahara A, Ogawa K, Watanabe Y, Tsubono Y, Bando T, Kanemura S, Izumi Y, Sasaki A, Fukao A et al (1998) A prospective cohort study on National Health Insurance beneficiaries in Ohsaki, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan: study design, profiles of the subjects and medical cost during the first year. J Epidemiol 8:258–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tsuji I, Kuwahara A, Nishino Y, Ohkubo T, Sasaki A, Hisamichi S (1999) Medical cost for disability: a longitudinal observation of national health insurance beneficiaries in Japan. J Am Geriatr Soc 47:470–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kuriyama S, Shimazu T, Ohmori K, Kikuchi N, Nakaya N, Nishino Y, Tsubono Y, Tsuji I (2006) Green tea consumption and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in Japan: the Ohsaki study. JAMA 296:1255–1265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kakizaki M, Inoue K, Kuriyama S, Sone T, Matsuda-Ohmori K, Nakaya N, Fukudo S, Tsuji I (2008) Sleep duration and the risk of prostate cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 99:176–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li Q, Kakizaki M, Kuriyama S, Sone T, Yan H, Nakaya N, Mastuda-Ohmori K, Tsuji I (2008) Green tea consumption and lung cancer risk: the Ohsaki study. Br J Cancer 99:1179–1184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ogawa K, Tsubono Y, Nishino Y, Watanabe Y, Ohkubo T, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Takahashi N, Kawamura M, Tsuji I, Hisamichi S (2003) Validation of a food-frequency questionnaire for cohort studies in rural Japan. Public Health Nutr 6:147–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Takano A, Okuno Y (1997) Japan, Miyagi Prefecture. In: Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, Raymond L, Young J (eds) Cancer incidence in five continents, vol. 7. IARC Sci Publ., Paris, pp 386–389Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Percy C, Holton VV (1990) International classification of diseases for oncology, 2nd edn. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mishina T, Watanabe H, Araki H, Nakao M (1985) Epidemiological study of prostatic cancer by matched-pair analysis. Prostate 6:423–436CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cohen P, Peehl DM, Lamson G, Rosenfeld RG (1991) Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF receptors, and IGF-binding proteins in primary cultures of prostate epithelial cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:401–407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Roddam AW, Allen NE, Appleby P, Key TJ, Ferrucci L, Carter HB, Metter EJ, Chen C, Weiss NS, Fitzpatrick A, Hsing AW, Lacey JV Jr et al (2008) Insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins, and prostate cancer risk: analysis of individual patient data from 12 prospective studies. Ann Intern Med 149(461–471):W83–W88Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hsing AW, Gao YT, Chua S Jr, Deng J, Stanczyk FZ (2003) Insulin resistance and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:67–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zamboni PF, Simone M, Passaro A, Doh Dalla Nora E, Fellin R, Solini A (2003) Metabolic profile in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer and normal glucose tolerance. Horm Metab Res 35:296–300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Singh G, Lakkis CL, Laucirica R, Epner DE (1999) Regulation of prostate cancer cell division by glucose. J Cell Physiol 180:431–438CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Seki A, Takigawa T, Ito T, Fukuoka E, Takahashi K, Kira S (2002) Obesity and the risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men. Acta Med Okayama 56:255–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Porter MP, Stanford JL (2005) Obesity and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate 62:316–321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Robinson WR, Stevens J, Gammon MD, John EM (2005) Obesity before age 30 years and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 161:1107–1114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bradbury BD, Wilk JB, Kaye JA (2005) Obesity and the risk of prostate cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 16:637–641CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gong Z, Neuhouser ML, Goodman PJ, Albanes D, Chi C, Hsing AW, Lippman SM, Platz EA, Pollak MN, Thompson IM, Kristal AR (2006) Obesity, diabetes, and risk of prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:1977–1983CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rodriguez C, Freedland SJ, Deka A, Jacobs EJ, McCullough ML, Patel AV, Thun MJ, Calle EE (2007) Body mass index, weight change, and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:63–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wakai K (2005) Descriptive epidemiology of prostate cancer in Japan and Western countries. Nippon Rinsho 63:207–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Akazawa Y (1994) Prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus by WHO criteria. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 24(Suppl):S23–S27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nakano T, Ito H (2007) Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in old age in Japan. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 77(Suppl 1):S76–S81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qiang Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shinichi Kuriyama
    • 1
  • Masako Kakizaki
    • 1
  • Hong Yan
    • 2
  • Toshimasa Sone
    • 1
  • Masato Nagai
    • 1
  • Yumi Sugawara
    • 1
  • Kaori Ohmori-Matsuda
    • 1
  • Atsushi Hozawa
    • 1
  • Yoshikazu Nishino
    • 3
  • Ichiro Tsuji
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Forensic MedicineTohoku University Graduate School of MedicineSendai, MiyagiJapan
  2. 2.Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Public HealthXi’an Jiaotong University School of MedicineXi’anChina
  3. 3.Division of EpidemiologyMiyagi Cancer Center Research InstituteNatoriJapan

Personalised recommendations