Advertisement

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 1009–1016 | Cite as

Dietary patterns and risk of advanced prostate cancer: a principal component analysis in Uruguay

  • Eduardo De Stefani
  • Alvaro L. Ronco
  • Hugo Deneo-Pellegrini
  • Paolo Boffetta
  • Dagfinn Aune
  • Gisele Acosta
  • Paul Brennan
  • Gilles Ferro
  • María Mendilaharsu
Original paper

Abstract

Objective

In order to explore the role of broader eating patterns in the etiology of prostate cancer, we conducted a principal components analysis among Uruguayan men.

Methods

The study included 345 newly diagnosed cases of advanced prostate cancer and 690 hospitalized controls. The factor analysis was performed using the control population.

Results

Factor analysis allowed the extraction of five patterns, labeled as prudent, traditional, substituter, drinker, and Western. Whereas the traditional and Western patterns were directly associated with risk of prostate cancer (OR for high quartile versus the low quartile of the Western diet was 2.35, 95% CI 1.44–3.85, p-value for trend < 0.0001), the prudent, drinker, and substituter patterns were not associated with risk of the disease. After adjustment of each pattern for the foods with high loadings, these three patterns did not modify substantially their original ORs.

Conclusion

The Western and traditional patterns could partially explain the high incidence of advanced prostate cancer in Uruguay, a main producer of beef in the World.

Keywords

Prostate cancer Exploratory factor analysis Milk Eggs Mate Cholesterol Calcium 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Supported by a grant from International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

References

  1. 1.
    Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, Teppo L, Thomas DB et al (eds) (2002) Cancer incidence in five continents. Volume VIII. IARC scientific publications Nº 155. Lyon, IARC, FranceGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hickey K, Do K-A, Green A (2001) Smoking and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 23:115–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jain MG, Hislop GT, Howe GR, Burch JD, Ghadirian P (1998) Alcohol and other beverage use and prostate cancer risk among Canadian men. Int J Cancer 78:707–711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parent ME, Siemiatycki J (2001) Occupation and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 23:138–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. AIRC, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chan JM, Giovannucci EL (2001) Dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 23:87–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Giovannucci E (1998) Dietary influences of 1, 25[OH]2 vitamin D in relation to prostate cancer: a hypothesis. Cancer Causes Control 9:567–582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gann PH, Hennekens CH, Sacks FM, Grodstein F, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ (1994) Prospective study of plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:281–286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kolonel LN, Nomura AMY, Cooney RV (1999) Dietary fat and prostate cancer: current status. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:414–428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Randall E, Marshall JR, Brasure J, Graham S (1992) Dietary patterns and colon cancer in western New York. Nutr Cancer 18:265–276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ronco AL, De Stefani E, Boffetta P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Acosta G, Mendilaharsu M (2006) Food patterns and risk of breast cancer: a factor analysis study in Uruguay. Int J Cancer 119:1672–1678CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tseng M, Breslow RA, DeVellis RF, Ziegler RG (2004) Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in the national health and nutrition examination survey epidemiological follow-up study cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:71–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Walker M, Aronson KJ, King W (2005) Dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in Ontario, Canada. Int J Cancer 116:592–598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wu K, Hu FB, Willett WC, Giovannucci E (2006) Dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in U.S. men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:167–171CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ambrosini GL, Fritschi L, Hubert de Clerk N, Mackerras D, Leavy J (2008) Dietary patterns identified using factor analysis and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study in Western Australia. Ann Epidemiol 18:364–370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Boffetta P, Ronco AL, Aune D, Acosta G, Mendilaharsu M, Brennan P, Ferro G (2009) Dietary patterns and risk of cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay. Int J Cancer 124:1391–1397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Muller DC, Severi G, Baglietto L, Krishnan K, English D, Hopper JL, Giles GG (2009) Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:3126–3129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wittekind C, Green FL, Hutter RVP, Klimpfinger R, Sobin LH (2005) TNM Atlas. 5th Edn, UICC. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gleason D (1966) Classification of prostate carcinoma. Cancer Chemother Rep 50:125–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harman HH (1976) Modern factor analysis, 3rd edn. Revised. The University of Chicago Press Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim J-O, Mueller CW (1978) Factor analysis. Statistical methods and practical issues. Age University Paper No 14, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kline P (2002) An easy guide to factor analysis. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Horst P (1965) Factor analysis of data matrices. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thomson GH (1951) The factorial analysis of human ability. University of London Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Balder HF, Goldbohm RA, van den Bradt PA (2005) Dietary patterns associated with male lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:483–490CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Breslow NE, Day NE (1980) Statistical methods in cancer research. Volume 1-The analysis of case-control analysis. IARC scientific publication No 32. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    TA STA (2005) Stata reference guide. Release 9. Stata Press, College StationGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Howell MA (1974) Factor analysis of international cancer mortality data and per capita food consumption. Br J Cancer 29:328–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Freeman MR, Solomon KR (2003) Cholesterol and prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem 91:54–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dillard PR, Lin MF, Khan SF (2008) Androgen-independent prostate cancer cells acquire the complete steroidogenic potential of synthesizing testosterone from cholesterol. Mol Cell Endocrinol 295:115–120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Platz EA, Clinton SK, Giovannucci E (2008) Association between plasma cholesterol and prostate cancer in the PSA era. Int J Cancer 123:1693–1698CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Platz EA, Till C, Goodman PJ, Parnes HL, Figg WD, Albanes D, Neuhouser ML, Klein EA, Thompson IA Jr, Kristal AR (2009) Men with low serum cholesterol have a lower risk of high-grade prostate cancer in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:2807–2813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ha B (2010) Prostate cancer linked to cholesterol levels. The Johns Hospital Science & TechGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    La Vecchia C, Negri E, D’Avanzo B, Franceschi S, Boyle P (1991) Dairy products and the risk of prostatic cancer. Oncology 48:406–410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ross RK, Shimizu H, Paganini-Hill A, Honda G, Henderson BE (1987) Case-control studies of prostate cancer in blacks and whites in Southern California. J Natl Cancer Inst 78:869–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chan JM, Giovannucci E, Andersson S-O, Yuen J, Adami H-O, Wolk A (1998) Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 9:559–566CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Skinner HG, Schwartz GG (2008) Serum calcium and incident and fatal prostate cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:2302–2305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tseng M, Breslow RA, Graubard BI, Ziegler RG (2005) Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the national health and nutrition examination epidemiologic follow-up study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 81:1147–1154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Huncharek M, Muscat J, Kupelnick B (2008) Dairy products, dietary calcium and vitamin D intake as risk factors for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 26,769 cases from 45 observational studies. Nutr Cancer 60:421–441CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rodríguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, Jacobs EJ et al (2003) Calcium, dairy products and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States Men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:597–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Michaud DS, Augustsson K, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC et al (2001) A prospective study on intake of animal products and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 12:557–567CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Slattery ML (2008) Editorial. Defining dietary consumption: is the sum greater than its parts? Am J Clin Nutr 88:14–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hu FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13:3–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jacobs DR Jr, Steffen LM (2003) Nutrient, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. Am J Clin Nutr 8 suppl:508S–513SGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Balder HF, Virtanen M, Brants HA, Krogh V, Dixon LB, Tan F, Mannisto S, Bellocco R, Pietinen P, Wolk A, Berrino F, van der Brandt PA, Hartman AM, Goldbohm RA (2003) Common and country-specific dietary patterns in four European cohort studies. J Nutr 133:4246–4251PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduardo De Stefani
    • 1
  • Alvaro L. Ronco
    • 2
  • Hugo Deneo-Pellegrini
    • 1
  • Paolo Boffetta
    • 3
  • Dagfinn Aune
    • 4
  • Gisele Acosta
    • 1
  • Paul Brennan
    • 3
  • Gilles Ferro
    • 3
  • María Mendilaharsu
    • 1
  1. 1.Grupo de Epidemiología, Departamento de Anatomía Patológica, Facultad de MedicinaHospital de ClínicasMontevideoUruguay
  2. 2.Departamento de Epidemiología y Métodos Científicos, Facultad de MedicinaIUCLAEHMaldonadoUruguay
  3. 3.International Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance
  4. 4.Department of NutritionUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations