Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 777–785 | Cite as

Risk factors for lung cancer: a case–control study in Hong Kong women

  • Yuk-Lan Chiu
  • Xiao-Rong Wang
  • Hong Qiu
  • Ignatius Tak-Sun YuEmail author
Original paper


To identify etiological connections of lung cancer in Chinese women in Hong Kong, who are among the highest in lung cancer incidence and mortality, we conducted a case–control study, in which 279 female lung cancer cases and 322 controls were selected and frequency matched. A variety of information, including dietary habits, occupational history, smoking, domestic environmental exposures, and family history of cancer was collected, and their associations with lung cancer were analyzed with logistic analysis approach. In addition to positive associations with exposures to cooking emissions and to radon at home, smoking and family cancer history, we observed that increasing consumption of meat was linked to a higher risk, whereas consumptions of vegetables had a strong protective effect against lung cancer. Moderate consumption of coffee appeared to be beneficial against the disease. Those never employed and domestic helpers were at a higher risk. The results indicated that environmental exposures, risky personal behaviors, or lifestyle, as well as family cancer aggregation are among important contributors to the high incidence of lung cancer in Hong Kong females.


Lung cancer Risk factors Case–control study Chinese women 



Environmental tobacco smoke


Residential radon exposure


Odds ratios



The work described in this paper was substantially supported by a grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. CUHK4103/02M).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuk-Lan Chiu
    • 1
  • Xiao-Rong Wang
    • 1
  • Hong Qiu
    • 1
  • Ignatius Tak-Sun Yu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Public Health and Primary CareThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatin, NTChina

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