Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 323–330 | Cite as

Human papillomavirus infection in women with and without cervical cancer in Nepal

  • Ang Tshering Lama Sherpa
  • Gary M. CliffordEmail author
  • Salvatore Vaccarella
  • Sadhina Shrestha
  • Mari Nygård
  • Balman Singh Karki
  • Peter J. F. Snijders
  • Chris J. L. M. Meijer
  • Silvia Franceschi
Original paper



Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy among Nepalese women. Rational prevention measures are informed by epidemiological data on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence.


Cervical specimens were obtained from 932 married women aged 15–59 years from the general population of Bharatpur, Nepal, as well as from 61 locally diagnosed invasive cervical cancers (ICC). HPV was detected using a GP5+/6+ PCR-based assay.


Among the general population, the overall prevalence of HPV was 8.6% (6.1% for high-risk types). Prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 3.6%, including five high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Residence in slum housing, lower education level, ≥3 sexual partners in a woman's lifetime, and husband’s extramarital affairs were significantly associated with HPV positivity. HPV prevalence was relatively constant across all age groups. HPV16 was the most common type, both among the general population (1.9%) and among 54 women with HPV-positive ICC (68.5%). HPV18 (22.2%) and 45 (5.6%) were also common in ICC.


Nepal has an intermediate burden of HPV infection, lower than many areas in India and China. Approximately 80% of cervical cancer in Nepal is theoretically preventable by HPV16/18 vaccines. In the meantime, screen-and-treat approaches should be encouraged to overcome difficulties that were encountered to recall women with screening-positive findings.


Cervical cancer Human papillomavirus Prevalence Nepal 



Confidence interval


High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions


Human papillomavirus


HPV16 and/or 18


International Agency for Research on Cancer


Invasive cervical cancer


Odds ratio



The authors of the manuscript have no conflict of interest to declare. The authors thank Dr Johanne Sundby for valuable comments.

Financial support

This work was supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (grant number 35537).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ang Tshering Lama Sherpa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gary M. Clifford
    • 3
    Email author
  • Salvatore Vaccarella
    • 3
  • Sadhina Shrestha
    • 4
  • Mari Nygård
    • 5
  • Balman Singh Karki
    • 1
  • Peter J. F. Snijders
    • 6
  • Chris J. L. M. Meijer
    • 6
  • Silvia Franceschi
    • 3
  1. 1.Kist Medical CollegeLalitpurNepal
  2. 2.Section for International HealthUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.International Agency for Research on CancerLyon cedex 08France
  4. 4.B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer HospitalBharatpurNepal
  5. 5.Cancer Registry of NorwayOsloNorway
  6. 6.Vrije University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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