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Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 237–242 | Cite as

Citrus fruit and cancer risk in a network of case–control studies

  • Roberto Foschi
  • Claudio PelucchiEmail author
  • Luigino Dal Maso
  • Marta Rossi
  • Fabio Levi
  • Renato Talamini
  • Cristina Bosetti
  • Eva Negri
  • Diego Serraino
  • Attilio Giacosa
  • Silvia Franceschi
  • Carlo La Vecchia
Original paper

Abstract

Background

Citrus fruit has shown a favorable effect against various cancers. To better understand their role in cancer risk, we analyzed data from a series of case–control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland.

Patients and methods

The studies included 955 patients with oral and pharyngeal cancer, 395 with esophageal, 999 with stomach, 3,634 with large bowel, 527 with laryngeal, 2,900 with breast, 454 with endometrial, 1,031 with ovarian, 1,294 with prostate, and 767 with renal cell cancer. All cancers were incident and histologically confirmed. Controls were admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, nonneoplastic conditions. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by multiple logistic regression models, including terms for major identified confounding factors for each cancer site, and energy intake.

Results

The ORs for the highest versus lowest category of citrus fruit consumption were 0.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.36–0.61) for oral and pharyngeal, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.25–0.70) for esophageal, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52–0.92) for stomach, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72–0.93) for colorectal, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.37–0.83) for laryngeal cancer. No consistent association was found with breast, endometrial, ovarian, prostate, and renal cell cancer.

Conclusions

Our findings indicate that citrus fruit has a protective role against cancers of the digestive and upper respiratory tract.

Keywords

Citrus Epidemiology Neoplasms Risk factors 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Mrs. M. P. Bonifacino for editorial assistance, and Mrs. O. Volpato for study coordination (Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistic). We are also deeply grateful to Drs. G. Chiara (I General Surgery Department), G. Tosolini (II General Surgery Department) for helping in case enrollment at the General Hospital, Pordenone, as well as to Drs. L. Forner (Eye Diseases Department), A. Mele (Hand Surgery and Microsurgery Department, and E. Trevisanutto (Dermatology Department) for providing control patients at the General Hospital, Pordenone. This study was conducted with the contribution of the Italian Association for Cancer Research and the Italian League against Cancer.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Foschi
    • 1
  • Claudio Pelucchi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Luigino Dal Maso
    • 2
  • Marta Rossi
    • 1
  • Fabio Levi
    • 3
  • Renato Talamini
    • 2
  • Cristina Bosetti
    • 1
  • Eva Negri
    • 1
  • Diego Serraino
    • 2
  • Attilio Giacosa
    • 4
  • Silvia Franceschi
    • 5
  • Carlo La Vecchia
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”MilanItaly
  2. 2.S.O.C. di Epidemiologia e BiostatisticaCentro di Riferimento OncologicoAvianoItaly
  3. 3.Unité d’Épidémiologie du Cancer et Registre Vaudois des Tumeurs, Institut de Medicine Sociale et Preventive (IUMSP)Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical NutritionPoliclinico di MonzaMonzaItaly
  5. 5.International Agency for Research on CancerLyon CedexFrance
  6. 6.Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria “G.A. Maccacaro”Università Degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly

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