Cancer Causes & Control

, 20:1697 | Cite as

Factors related to second cancer screening practice in disease-free cervical cancer survivors

  • Sang Min Park
  • Chong Taik Park
  • Sang Yoon Park
  • Duk-Soo Bae
  • Joo Hyun Nam
  • Chi-Heum Cho
  • Jong Min Lee
  • Craig C. Earle
  • Young Ho Yun
Original paper



Although cancer survivors are at increased risk for developing cancers at other sites, little is known about the current status of second cancer (cancers other than the index cancer) screening practices and related factors in cervical cancer survivors.


We enrolled 809 cervical cancer survivors aged ≥40 years who had been treated at six hospitals from 1983 to 2004. Subjects filled out a questionnaire that included the practices of second cancer screening (breast, stomach, and colorectum) and other sociodemographic variables.


Among subjects, 38.9% had been recommended to receive screening for other cancers from health care providers, and 27.4% reported that they thought they had lower risk of other cancer than general population. Older (age ≥65 years) and poor (family income <1,000$/month) subjects were less likely to have second cancer screening. Those to whom health care providers had recommended screening for other cancers (aOR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.54–2.98), and those who had an appropriate perception of second cancer risk (aOR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11–2.43) were more likely to undergo breast cancer screening.


Lack of a recommendation for second cancer screening from health care providers and the misperception of second cancer risk might have negative impacts on the breast cancer screening behaviors in cervical cancer survivors.


Cancer screening Cervical cancer survivor Second cancer 


  1. 1.
    Living beyond cancer: finding a new balance (2004) President’s cancer panel 2003–2004 annual report. President’s Cancer Panel, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Park SM, Lim MK, Jung KW et al (2007) Prediagnosis smoking, obesity, insulin resistance, and second primary cancer risk in male cancer survivors: national health insurance corporation study. J Clin Oncol 25:4835–4843CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dong C, Hemminki K (2001) Second primary neoplasms in 633, 964 cancer patients in Sweden, 1958–1996. Int J Cancer 93:155–161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dikshit RP, Boffetta P, Bouchardy C et al (2005) Risk factors for the development of second primary tumors among men after laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer 103:2326–2333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Gilbert ES et al (2007) Second cancers among 104760 survivors of cervical cancer: evaluation of long-term risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 99:1634–1643CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Evans HS, Newnham A, Hodgson SV et al (2003) Second primary cancers after cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III and invasive cervical cancer in Southeast England. Gynecol Oncol 90:131–136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weinberg DS, Newschaffer CJ, Topham A (1999) Risk for colorectal cancer after gynecologic cancer. Ann Intern Med 131:189–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Eyre HJ (2006) American cancer society guidelines for the early detection of cancer, 2006. CA Cancer J Clin 56:11–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Trask PC, Rabin C, Rogers ML et al (2005) Cancer screening practices among cancer survivors. Am J Prev Med 28:351–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diller L, Medeiros Nancarrow C et al (2002) Breast cancer screening in women previously treated for Hodgkin’s disease: a prospective cohort study. J Clin Oncol 20:2085–2091CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yeazel MW, Oeffinger KC, Gurney JG et al (2004) The cancer screening practices of adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Cancer 100:631–640CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Earle CC, Neville BA (2004) Under use of necessary care among cancer survivors. Cancer 101:1712–1719CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Earle CC, Burstein HJ, Winer EP et al (2003) Quality of non-breast cancer health maintenance among elderly breast cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol 21:1447–1451CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ogle KS, Swanson GM, Woods N et al (2000) Cancer and comorbidity: redefining chronic diseases. Cancer 88:653–663CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Park SY, Bae DS, Nam JH et al (2007) Quality of life and sexual problems in disease-free survivors of cervical cancer compared with the general population. Cancer 110:2716–2725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea (2006) National cancer screening programmes guidelines, 2006. Ministry of Health and Welfare, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2002) Breast cancer screening summary of recommendations. Available at: Accessed November 29, 2004
  18. 18.
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2002) Colorectal cancer screening summary of recommendations. Available at: Accessed November 29, 2004
  19. 19.
    Shin HR, Ahn YO, Bae JM et al (2002) Cancer incidence in Korea. Cancer Res Treat 34:405–408Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lin K, Patel SG, Chu PY et al (2005) Second primary malignancy of the aerodigestive tract in patients treated for cancer of the oral cavity and larynx. Head Neck 27:1042–1048CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matsubara T, Yamada K, Nakagawa A (2003) Risk of second primary malignancy after esophagectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus. J Clin Oncol 21:4336–4341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fowble B, Hanlon A, Freedman G et al (2001) Second cancers after conservative surgery and radiation for stages I-II breast cancer: identifying a subset of women at increased risk. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51:679–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kong L, Lu JJ, Hu C et al (2006) The risk of second primary tumors in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after definitive radiotherapy. Cancer 107:1287–1293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Earle CC (2006) Failing to plan is planning to fail: improving the quality of care with survivorship care plans. J Clin Oncol 24:5112–5116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hewitt M, Greenfield S, Stovall E (2005) From cancer patient to cancer survivor: lost in transition. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Myers RE, Sifri R, Hyslop T et al (2007) A randomized controlled trial of the impact of targeted and tailored interventions on colorectal cancer screening. Cancer 110:2083–2091CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chaudhry R, Scheitel SM, McMurtry EK et al (2007) Web-based proactive system to improve breast cancer screening: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 167:606–611CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Choi KS, Kim EJ, Lim JH et al (2007) Job loss and reemployment after a cancer diagnosis in Koreans—a prospective cohort study. Psychooncology 16:205–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Blustein J (1995) Medicare coverage, supplemental insurance, and the use of mammography by older women. N Engl J Med 332:1138–1143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sang Min Park
    • 1
    • 9
  • Chong Taik Park
    • 2
  • Sang Yoon Park
    • 3
  • Duk-Soo Bae
    • 4
  • Joo Hyun Nam
    • 5
  • Chi-Heum Cho
    • 6
  • Jong Min Lee
    • 7
  • Craig C. Earle
    • 8
  • Young Ho Yun
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cancer ControlNational Cancer CenterGoyang-siKorea
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kangnam Cha Hospital, College of MedicinePochon CHA UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.Center for Uterine CancerNational Cancer CenterGoyangKorea
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical CenterSungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSeoulKorea
  5. 5.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asan Medical CenterUniversity of Ulsan College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  6. 6.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of MedicineKeimyung UniversityDaeguKorea
  7. 7.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, East-West Neo Medical CenterKyung Hee UniversitySeoulKorea
  8. 8.Division of Population Sciences, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer InstituteHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  9. 9.Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University HospitalSeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations