Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 1451–1458

Dietary vitamin C, E, and carotenoid intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma

  • Jinfu Hu
  • Carlo La  Vecchia
  • Eva Negri
  • Marie DesMeules
  • Les Mery
  • The Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-009-9371-6

Cite this article as:
Hu, J., La Vecchia, C., Negri, E. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2009) 20: 1451. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9371-6



The study examines the association between dietary intake of vitamin C, E, and carotenoids and the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).


Between 1994 and 1997 in 8 Canadian provinces, mailed questionnaires were completed by 1,138 incident, histologically confirmed cases of RCC and 5,039 population controls, including information on socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 years before data collection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression.


Dietary intake of β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin was inversely associated with the risk of RCC. The ORs for the highest versus the lowest quartile were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.59–0.92) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.62–0.95), respectively. The significant inverse association with β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin was more pronounced in women, and in overweight or obese subjects. The relation of lutein/zeaxanthin to RCC was stronger in ever smokers. No clear association was observed with vitamin C and E, β-cryptozanthin, and lycopene.


The findings provide evidence that a diet rich in β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin may play a role in RCC prevention.


Kidney cancer Risk Carotenoids Canada 



Body mass index


Odds ratio


Confidence interval


National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System


Renal cell carcinoma


Food frequency questionnaire

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinfu Hu
    • 1
  • Carlo La  Vecchia
    • 2
    • 3
  • Eva Negri
    • 2
  • Marie DesMeules
    • 1
  • Les Mery
    • 4
  • The Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group
  1. 1.Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and ControlPublic Health Agency of CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Istituto Di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”MilanItaly
  3. 3.Istituto di Statistica Medica e BiometriaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  4. 4.Canadian Partnership Against CancerOttawaCanada

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