Consumption of sweet foods and breast cancer risk: a case–control study of women on Long Island, New York
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Several epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between breast cancer risk and high intake of sweets, which may be due to an insulin-related mechanism. We investigated this association in a population-based case–control study of 1,434 cases and 1,440 controls from Long Island, NY. Shortly after diagnosis, subjects were interviewed in-person to assess potential breast cancer risk factors, and self-completed a modified Block food frequency questionnaire, which included 11 items pertaining to consumption of sweets (sweet beverages, added sugars, and various desserts) in the previous year. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we estimated the association between consumption of sweets and breast cancer. Consumption of a food grouping that included dessert foods, sweet beverages, and added sugars was positively associated with breast cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing the highest to the lowest quartile: 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00–1.61]. The OR was slightly higher when only dessert foods were considered (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.23–1.96). The association with desserts was stronger among pre-menopausal women (OR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.32–3.04) than post-menopausal women (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.07–1.83), although the interaction with menopause was not statistically significant. Our study indicates that frequent consumption of sweets, particularly desserts, may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These results are consistent with other studies that implicate insulin-related factors in breast carcinogenesis.
KeywordsSweets consumption Insulin Breast cancer Estrogen receptor Progesterone receptor
This work supported in part by National Cancer Institute and the National Institutes of Environmental Health and Sciences Grant nos. UO1CA/ES66572, P30ES10126, T32CA72319 and T32CA009330.
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