Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 905–916

Relationship between cardiopulmonary mortality and cancer risk and quantitative exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fluorides, and dust in two prebake aluminum smelters

  • Melissa C. Friesen
  • Geza Benke
  • Anthony Del Monaco
  • Martine Dennekamp
  • Lin Fritschi
  • Nick de Klerk
  • Jan L. Hoving
  • Ewan MacFarlane
  • Malcolm R. Sim
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-009-9329-8

Cite this article as:
Friesen, M.C., Benke, G., Del Monaco, A. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2009) 20: 905. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9329-8

Abstract

Objectives

We examined the risk of mortality and cancer incidence with quantitative exposure to benzene-soluble fraction (BSF), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), fluoride, and inhalable dust in two Australian prebake smelters.

Methods

A total of 4,316 male smelter workers were linked to mortality and cancer incidence registries and followed from 1983 through 2002 (mean follow-up: 15.9 years, maximum: 20 years). Internal comparisons using Poisson regression were undertaken based on quantitative exposure levels.

Results

Smoking-adjusted, monotonic relationships were observed between respiratory cancer and cumulative inhalable dust exposure (trend p = 0.1), cumulative fluoride exposure (p = 0.1), and cumulative BaP exposure (p = 0.2). The exposure–response trends were stronger when examined across the exposed categories (BaP p = 0.1; inhalable dust p = 0.04). A monotonic, but not statistically significant trend was observed between cumulative BaP exposure and stomach cancer (n = 14). Bladder cancer was not associated with BaP or BSF exposure. No other cancer and no mortality outcomes were associated with these smelter exposures.

Conclusions

The carcinogenicity of Söderberg smelter exposures is well established; in these prebake smelters we observed an association between smelter exposures and respiratory cancer, but not bladder cancer. The exploratory finding for stomach cancer needs confirmation. These results are preliminary due to the young cohort and short follow-up time.

Keywords

Historical cohort studies Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Fluorides Dust 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa C. Friesen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Geza Benke
    • 1
  • Anthony Del Monaco
    • 1
  • Martine Dennekamp
    • 1
  • Lin Fritschi
    • 3
  • Nick de Klerk
    • 4
  • Jan L. Hoving
    • 1
    • 5
  • Ewan MacFarlane
    • 1
  • Malcolm R. Sim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Level 3Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Environmental Health SciencesUniversity of California BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Western Australian Institute for Medical ResearchSir Charles Gairdner HospitalNedlandsAustralia
  4. 4.Telethon Institute for Child Health ResearchPerthAustralia
  5. 5.Coronel Institute of Occupational HealthUniversiteit van AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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