Incidence trends of invasive cervical cancer in the United States by combined race and ethnicity
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To better understand national patterns of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence by race and ethnicity in order to develop appropriate ICC prevention policies.
Age-adjusted and age-specific ICC incidence rates were calculated by combined race/ethnicity, making distinct the Hispanic/all races category from three other Non-Hispanic (White, Black and other) racial categories.
There was a significant downward trend in ICC incidence during both time periods for every combination of race/ethnicity (p-value <0.05) except Hispanic/all races during 1995–1999. Non-Hispanic/Black and Hispanic/all races women had significantly higher incidence rates of ICC compared to Non-Hispanic/White women. ICC incidence peaked much earlier for Non-Hispanic/White women (35–44 years of age) compared to any other racial/ethnic group. Non-Hispanic (White, Black and other) women had lower rates of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared to Hispanic/all races women. Non-Hispanic/Black and Hispanic/all races women were more likely to be diagnosed at late stage or unstaged at diagnosis than Non-Hispanic/White women.
Although ICC incidence decreased significantly over the last 10 years, Black or Hispanic US populations continue to have the highest ICC incidence compared to Non-Hispanic/Whites, highlighting the need for improved health literacy and social support to ensure their equal access to ICC screening and HPV prevention including HPV vaccination.
KeywordsCervical cancer Human papillomavirus HPV vaccine Incidence Racial/ethnic disparities
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