Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 867–876

Life course socioeconomic conditions, passive tobacco exposures and cigarette smoking in a multiethnic birth cohort of U.S. women

  • Parisa Tehranifar
  • Yuyan Liao
  • Jennifer S. Ferris
  • Mary Beth Terry
Original Paper

Abstract

Low socioeconomic status (SES) and exposure to passive tobacco smoke are associated with increased risk of smoking in adults, but the influences of these factors in earlier life periods on adult smoking behavior are not well understood. We investigated the relationship of SES and passive tobacco exposure over the lifecourse with adult smoking status in a multiethnic cohort of U.S. women (n = 262, average age = 41.8), using prospective data on maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood SES, and follow-up data on current smoking, adult SES and household tobacco exposure. Low adolescent and adult SES consistently increased the risk of current smoking, but most associations were not statistically significant in multivariable models. Blue collar parental occupation at birth increased the risk of smoking, particularly for current smoking relative to former smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–5.9). After adjusting for SES, current and former smokers were more likely than never smokers to have exposures to prenatal tobacco (OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.1–9.4 and OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0–4.2, respectively) and adult household tobacco (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.3–5.8 and OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2–4.8, respectively). Our results show that early life conditions have enduring influences on women’s smoking behavior in middle adulthood, even after considering similar types of conditions in later life periods.

Keywords

Smoking Life course Socioeconomic factors Passive or secondhand smoke Ethnicity 

References

  1. 1.
    Garfinkel L (1997) Trends in cigarette smoking in the United States. Prev Med 26:447–450. doi:10.1006/pmed.1997.0191 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Franks P, Jerrant AF, Leigh P, Lee D, Chiem A, Lewis I et al (2007) Cigarette prices, smoking, and the poor: implications of recent trends. Am J Public Health 97:1873–1877. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.090134 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006) Tobacco use among adults—United States, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55:1145–1148Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huisman M, Kunst AE, Mackenback JP (2005) Inequalities in the prevalence of smoking in the European Union: comparing education and income. Prev Med 40:756–764. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.09.022 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1998). Tobacco use among U.S. racial/ethnic minority groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian American and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: a report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease, Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of Smoking and Health, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    van de Mheen H, Stronk K, Looman CWN, Mackenback JP (1998) Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors? Int J Epidemiol 27:431–437. doi:10.1093/ije/27.3.431 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jefferis B, Power C, Graham H, Manor O (2004) Effects of childhood socioeconomic circumstances on persistent smoking. Am J Public Health 94:279–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brunner E, Shipley MJ, Blane D et al (1999) When does cardiovascular risk start? past and present socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors in adulthood. J Epidemiol Community Health 53:757–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Power C, Graham H, Due P, Hallqvist J, Joung I, Kuh D et al (2005) The contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position to adult obesity and smoking behavior: an international comparison. Int J Epidemiol 34:335–344. doi:10.1093/ije/dyh394 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blane D, Hart C, Smith GD, Gillis CR, Hole DJ, Hawthorine VM (1996) Association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with socioeconomic position during childhood and during adulthood. BMJ 313:1434–1438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kestila L, Koskinen S, Martelin R, Rahkonen O, Pensola T, Pirkola S et al (2006) Influence of parental education, childhood adversities, and current living conditions on daily smoking in early adulthood. Eur J Public Health 16:617–626. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckl054 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Graham H, Der G (1999) Influences on women’s smoking status. Eur J Public Health 9:137–141Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lynch JW, Kaplan GA, Salonen JT (1997) Why do poor people behave poorly? Variaion in adult health behaviours and psychological characteristics by stages of the socioeconomic lifecourse. Soc Sci Med 44:809–819. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(96)00191-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paavola M, Vartianinen E, Haukkala A (2004) Smoking from adolescence to adulthood. Eur J Public Health 14:417–421. doi:10.1093/eurpub/14.4.417 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gilman SE, Abrams DB, Buka SL (2003) Socioeconomic status over the life course and stages of cigarette use: initiation, regular use, and cessation. J Epidemiol Community Health 57:802–808. doi:10.1136/jech.57.10.802 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Graham H, Francis B, Inskip HM, Harman J, SWS Study Team (2006) Socioeconomic lifecourse influences on women’s smoking status in early adulthood. J Epidemiol Community Health 60:228–233. doi:10.1136/jech.2005.039784 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Graham HMI, Francis B, Harman J (2006) Pathways of disadvantage and smoking careers: evidence and policy implications. J Epidemiol Community Health 60:ii7–ii12. doi:10.1136/jech.2005.045583 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Honjo K, Tsutsumi A, Kawachi I, Kawakami N (2006) What accounts for the relationship between social class and smoking cessation? Results of a path analysis. Soc Sci Med 62:317–328. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.06.011 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Janzon E, Engstrom G, Lindstrom M, Berglund G, Hedblad B, Janzon L (2005) Who are the “quitters”? A cross-sectional study of circumstances associated with giving up smoking. Scand J Public Health 33:175–182. doi:10.1080/14034940410019244 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buka SL, Shenassa ED, Niaura R (2003) Elevated risk of tobacco dependence among offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy: a 30 year prospective study. Am J Psychiatry 160:1978–1984. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.11.1978 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Al Mamum A, O’Callaghan FV, Alati R, O’Callaghan M, Najman JM, Williams GM et al (2006) Does maternal smoking during pregnancy predict the smoking patterns of young adult offspring? A birth cohort study. Tob Control 15:452–457. doi:10.1136/tc.2006.016790 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kandal DB, Wu P, Davies M (1994) Maternal smoking during pregnancy and smoking by adolescent daughters. Am J Public Health 84:1407–1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cornelius MD, Leech SL, Goldschmidt L, Day NL (2000) Prenatal tobacco exposure: is it a risk factor for early tobacco experimentation. Nicotine Tob Res 2:45–52. doi:10.1080/14622200050011295 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roberts KH, Munafo MR, Rodriguez D, Drury M, Murphy MFG, Neale RE et al (2005) Longitudinal analysis of the effect of prenatal nicotine exposure on subsequent smoking behavior of offspring. Nicotine Tob Res 7:801–808. doi:10.1080/14622200500262840 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Niswander KR, Gordon M (1972) The women and their pregnancies. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Terry MB, Flom J, Tehranifar P, Susser E (forthcoming) The role of birth cohorts in studying adult health: the New York women’s birth cohort. Paediatr Perinat EpidemiolGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S (2000) Applied logistic regression, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lumley T, Kronmal R, Shuangge M (2006) Relative risk regression in medical research: models, contrasts, estimators, and algorithms. UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series 2006, Working Paper 293Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Breslau N, Peterson EL (1996) Smoking cessation in young adults: age at initiation of cigarette smoking and other suspected influences. Am J Public Health 86:214–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lando HA, Thai DT, Murray DM, Robinson LA, Jeffery RW, Sherwood NE et al (1999) Age of initiation, smoking patterns, and risk in a population of working adults. Prev Med 29:590–598. doi:10.1006/pmed.1999.0590 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    McGee R, Williams S (2006) Predictors of persistent smoking and quitting among women smokers. Addict Behav 31:1711–1715. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.12.008 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Women and Smoking. A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    King G, Polednak AP, Bendel R (1999) Regional variation in smoking among African Americans. Prev Med 29:126–132. doi:10.1006/pmed.1999.0511 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Perez-Stable EJ, Ramirez A, Villareal R, Talavera GA, Trapido E, Suarez L et al (2001) Cigarette smoking behavior among US Latino men and women from different countries of origin. Am J Public Health, 91:1424–1430Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Trindad DR, Gilpin EA, Messer K, White MM, Pierce JP (2006) Trends in smoking among Hispanic women in California: relationship to English language use. Am J Prev Med 31:257–260. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2006.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    King G, Polednak AP, Bendel R, Hovey D (1999) Cigarette smoking among native and foreign-born African Americans. Ann Epidemiol 9:236–244. doi:10.1016/S1047-2797(98)00052-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Datta GD, Subramanian SV, Kawachi I, Palmer JR, Rosenberg L (2006) Individual, neighborhood, and state-level predictors of smoking among Black women: a multilevel analysis. Soc Sci Med 63:1034–1044. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.03.010 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Osypuk TL, Kawachi I, Subramanian SV, Acevedo-Garcia D (2006) Are state patterns of smoking different for different racial/ethnic groups? An application of multilevel analysis. Public Health Rep 121:563–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Escobedo LG, Remington PL (1989) Birth cohort analysis of prevalence of cigarette smoking among Hispanics in the United States. JAMA 261:66–69. doi:10.1001/jama.261.1.66 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Messer K, Trinidad DR, Al-Delaimy WK, Pierce JP (2008) Smoking cessation rates in the United States: a comparison of young adult and older smokers. Am J Public Health 98:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kiefe CI, Williams OD, Lewis CE, Allison JJ, Sekar P, Wagenknecht LE (2001) Ten-year changes in smoking among young adults: are racial differences explained by socioeconomic factors in the CARDIA study? Am J Public Health 91:213–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wagenknecht LE, Craven TE, Preisser JS, Manolio TA, Winders S, Huley SB (1998) Ten-year trends in cigarette smoking among young adults, 1986–1996: the CARDIA study. Ann Epidemiol 8:301–307. doi:10.1016/S1047-2797(97)00211-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jefferis B, Power C, Graham H et al (2004) Changing social grandients in cigarette smoking and cessation over two decades of adult follow-up in a British birth cohort. J Public Health Med 26:13–18. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdh110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Graham H (1998) Promoting health against inequality: using research to identify targets for intervention—a case study of women and smoking. Health Educ J 57:292–302. doi:10.1177/001789699805700402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Graham H (1987) Women’s smoking and family health. Soc Sci Med 25:47–56. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(87)90206-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1994). Preventing tobacco use among young people. A report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Glendinning A, Shucksmith J, Hendry L (1994) Social class and adolescent smoking behaviour. Soc Sci Med 38:1449–1460. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(94)90283-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Karvonen S, Rimpela AH, Rimpela MK (1999) Social mobility and health related behaviours in young people. J Epidemiol Community Health 53:211–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Koivustilta L, Rimpela A, Rimpela M (1998) Health related lifestyle in adolescence predicts adult educational level: a longitudinal study from Finland. J Epidemiol Community Health 52:794–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Laaksonen M, Uutela A, Vartianinen E, Jousilahti P, Helakorpi S, Puska P (1999) Development of smoking by birth cohort in the adult population in eastern Finland 1972–197. Tob Control 8:161–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Evandrou M, Falkingham J (2002) Smoking behaviour and socio-economic status: a cohort analysis: 1974 to 1998. Health Stat Q 14:30–38Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pierce JP, Fiore MC, Nootny TE et al (1989) Trends in cigarette smoking in the United States. Educational differences are increasing. JAMA 261:56–60. doi:10.1001/jama.261.1.56 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Federico B, Costa G, Kunst AE (2007) Educational inequalities in initiation, cessation, and prevalence of smoking among 3 Italian birth cohorts. Am J Public Health 97:838–845. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.067082 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Osler M, Holstein B, Avlund K, Damsgaard MT, Rasmussen NK (2001) Socioeconomic position and smoking behaviour in Danish adults. Scand J Public Health 29:32–39Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kandel DB, Udry JR (1999) Prenatal effects of maternal smoking on daughter’s smoking: nicotine or testosterone exposure? Am J Public Health 89:1377–1383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lieb R, Schreier A, Pfister H, Wittchen HY (2003) Maternal smoking and smoking in adolescents: a prospective community study of adolescents and their mothers. Eur Addict Res 9:120–130. doi:10.1159/000070980 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lawlor DA, O’Callaghan MJ, Mamum AA, Williams GM, Bor W, Najman JM (2005) Early life predictors of adolescent smoking: findings from the Mater-University study of pregnancy and its outcomes. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 19:377–387. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2005.00674.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cornelius MD, Leech SL, Goldschmidt L, Day NL (2005) Is prenatal tobacco exposure a risk factor for early adolescent smoking? A follow-up study. Neurotoxicol Teratol 27:667–676. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2005.05.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rossow I, Rise J (1994) Concordance of parental and adolescent health behaviors. Soc Sci Med 38:1299–1305. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(94)90193-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Farkas AJ, Gilpin EA, Distefan JM, Pierce JP (1999) The effects of household and workplace smoking restrictions on quitting behaviours. Tob Control 8:261–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Borland R, Yong HH, Cummings KM, Hyland A, Anderson S, Fong GT (2006) Determinants and consequences of smoke-free homes: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tob Control 15:iii42–iii50. doi:10.1136/tc.2005.012492 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pizacani BA, Martin DP, Stark MJ, Koepsell TD, Thompson B, Diehr P (2004) A prospective study of household smoking ban and subsequent cessation related behaviour: the role of stage of change. Tob Control 13:23–28. doi:10.1136/tc.2003.003038 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Patrick DL, Cheadle A, Thompson DC, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kinne S (1994) The validity of self-reported smoking: a review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 84:1086–1093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Vartianinen E, Seppala T, Lillsunde P et al (2005) Validation of self-reported smoking by serum cotinine measurement in a community based study. J Epidemiol Community Health 56:167–170. doi:10.1136/jech.56.3.167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Suadicani P, Hein HO, Gyntelberg F (1994) Serum validated tobacco use and social inequalities in risk of ischaemic heart disease. Int J Epidemiol 23:293–300. doi:10.1093/ije/23.2.293 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1964). Smoking and health report on the advisory committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Services. DHHS Publication No. 1103, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Klebanoff MA, Levine RJ, Clemens JD, DerSimonian R, Wilkins DG (1998) Serum cotinine concentration and self-reported smoking during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 148:259–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Moddy-Ayers A, Lindquist K, Sen S, Covinsky KE (2007) Childhood social and economic well-being and health in older age. Am J Epidemiol 166:1059–1067. doi:10.1093/aje/kwm185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Farmer MM, Ferraro KF (2005) Are racial disparities in health conditional on socioeconomic status? Soc Sci Med 60:191–204. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.04.026 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Braveman P, Cubbin C, Marchi K, Egerter S, Chavez G (2001) Measuring socioeconomic status/position in studies of racial/ethnic disparities: maternal and infant health. Public Health Rep 116:449–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pensola TH, Martikainen P (2003) Cumulative social class and mortality from various causes of adult men. J Epidemiol Community Health 57:745–751. doi:10.1136/jech.57.9.745 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    LaVecchia C, DeCarli A, Pagano R (1986) Prevalence of cigarette smoking among subsequent cohorts of Italian males and females. Prev Med 15:606–613. doi:10.1016/0091-7435(86)90065-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Parisa Tehranifar
    • 1
  • Yuyan Liao
    • 1
  • Jennifer S. Ferris
    • 1
  • Mary Beth Terry
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations