Lifestyle, dietary, and medical history factors associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Ontario, Canada
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has one of the worst survival rates of all the cancers. Established risk factors for this malignancy are smoking, body mass index (BMI) and family history of pancreatic cancer. Findings are inconsistent regarding pancreatitis, diabetes, allergies, intake of fruit, vegetables, red meat, alcohol, caffeine, vitamin C, calcium, and folate supplements. Possible pancreatic cancer risk factors were evaluated within the population-based Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study.
Pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer cases (n = 422) were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry between 2003 and 2007. Controls (n = 312) were recruited through random digit dialing. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios.
Smoking, BMI, family history of pancreatic cancer, and caffeine were significantly associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk, while fruit intake and allergies significantly decreased risk. No other significant associations were observed in the multivariate model. Effect modification by smoking status was suggested for caffeine, family history of pancreatic cancer, BMI, and fruit.
This study further clarifies the association between several lifestyle, dietary and medical history factors, and pancreatic cancer risk, many of which are potentially modifiable. Possible effect modification by smoking status should be further explored in future etiologic studies.
KeywordsPancreatic neoplasms Risk factors Diet Smoking Case–control studies
Age-adjusted odds ratio
Body mass index
Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio
Ontario Cancer Registry
Ontario Familial Colon Cancer Registry
Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study
The authors would like to thank Ayelet Borgida, Research Coordinator for the Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. This study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01 CA97075, as part of the PACGENE consortium), the Lustgarten Foundation for Pancreatic Cancer Research, and the Ontario Cancer Research Network. The authors’ study was independent of the funders. We acknowledge the Pancreatic Cancer Canada foundation (www.pancreaticcancercanada.ca) for their continued support of research into the early detection of pancreatic cancer, and the Pancreas Cancer Screening Study at Mount Sinai Hospital, and at Princess Margaret Hospital.
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