Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 785–794 | Cite as

Ethanol intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

  • Sabine Rohrmann
  • Jakob Linseisen
  • Alina Vrieling
  • Paolo Boffetta
  • Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon
  • Albert B. Lowenfels
  • Majken K. Jensen
  • Kim Overvad
  • Anja Olsen
  • Anne Tjonneland
  • Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
  • Francoise Clavel-Chapelon
  • G. Fagherazzi
  • Gesthimani Misirli
  • Pagona Lagiou
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
  • Rudolf Kaaks
  • Manuela M. Bergmann
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Sheila Bingham
  • Kay-Tee Khaw
  • Naomi Allen
  • Andrew Roddam
  • Domenico Palli
  • Valeria Pala
  • Salvatore Panico
  • Rosario Tumino
  • Paolo Vineis
  • Petra H. M. Peeters
  • Anette Hjartåker
  • Eiliv Lund
  • Ma Luisa Redondo Cornejo
  • Antonio Agudo
  • Larraitz Arriola
  • Maria-José Sánchez
  • María-José Tormo
  • Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea
  • Björn Lindkvist
  • Jonas Manjer
  • Ingegerd Johansson
  • Weimin Ye
  • Nadia Slimani
  • Eric J. Duell
  • Mazda Jenab
  • Dominique S. Michaud
  • Traci Mouw
  • Elio Riboli
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
Original Paper

Abstract

Objective

To examine the association of baseline and lifetime ethanol intake with cancer of the pancreas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Methods

Included in this analysis were 478,400 subjects, of whom detailed information on the intake of alcoholic beverages at baseline and over lifetime was collected between 1992 and 2000. During a median follow-up time of 8.9 years, 555 non-endocrine pancreatic cancer cases were observed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of ethanol intake at recruitment and average lifetime ethanol intake and pancreatic cancer adjusting for smoking, height, weight, and history of diabetes.

Results

Overall, neither ethanol intake at recruitment (relative risk (RR) = 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69–1.27 comparing 30+ g/d vs. 0.1–4.9 g/d) nor average lifetime ethanol intake (RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.65–1.39) was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. High lifetime ethanol intake from spirits/liquor at recruitment tended to be associated with a higher risk (RR = 1.40, 95% CI 0.93–2.10 comparing 10+ g/d vs. 0.1–4.9 g/d), but no associations were observed for wine and beer consumption.

Conclusion

These results suggest no association of alcohol consumption with the risk of pancreatic cancer.

Keywords

Ethanol Pancreatic cancer Epidemiology EPIC 

Notes

Acknowledgments

European Commission: Public Health and Consumer Protection Directorate 1993–2004; Research Directorate-General 2005-; Deutsche Krebshilfe, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; Danish Cancer Society; Health Research Fund (FIS) of the Spanish Ministry of Health, Spanish Regional Governments of Andalucia, Asturias, Basque Country, Murcia and Navarra; the ISCIII Network RCESP (C03/09), Spain; Cancer Research UK; Medical Research Council, United Kingdom; Stroke Association, United Kingdom; British Heart Foundation; Department of Health, United Kingdom; Food Standards Agency, United Kingdom; Wellcome Trust, United Kingdom; Greek Ministry of Health; Greek Ministry of Education; Italian Association for Research on Cancer (AIRC); Italian National Research Council, Fondazione-Istituto Banco Napoli, Italy; Compagnia di San Paolo; Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports; World Cancer Research Fund; Swedish Cancer Society; Swedish Scientific Council; Regional Government of Skåne, Sweden; Norwegian Cancer Society; Research Council of Norway; French League against Cancer (LNCC); National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), France; Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale (MGEN), France; 3 M Co, France; Gustave Roussy Institute (IGR), France; and General Councils of France

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabine Rohrmann
    • 1
  • Jakob Linseisen
    • 1
  • Alina Vrieling
    • 2
    • 3
  • Paolo Boffetta
    • 4
  • Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon
    • 5
  • Albert B. Lowenfels
    • 6
  • Majken K. Jensen
    • 7
  • Kim Overvad
    • 7
  • Anja Olsen
    • 8
  • Anne Tjonneland
    • 8
  • Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
    • 9
  • Francoise Clavel-Chapelon
    • 9
  • G. Fagherazzi
    • 9
  • Gesthimani Misirli
    • 10
  • Pagona Lagiou
    • 10
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
    • 10
  • Rudolf Kaaks
    • 1
  • Manuela M. Bergmann
    • 11
  • Heiner Boeing
    • 11
  • Sheila Bingham
    • 12
  • Kay-Tee Khaw
    • 13
  • Naomi Allen
    • 14
  • Andrew Roddam
    • 14
  • Domenico Palli
    • 15
  • Valeria Pala
    • 16
  • Salvatore Panico
    • 17
  • Rosario Tumino
    • 18
  • Paolo Vineis
    • 19
  • Petra H. M. Peeters
    • 3
    • 20
  • Anette Hjartåker
    • 21
  • Eiliv Lund
    • 22
  • Ma Luisa Redondo Cornejo
    • 23
  • Antonio Agudo
    • 24
  • Larraitz Arriola
    • 25
    • 26
  • Maria-José Sánchez
    • 26
    • 27
  • María-José Tormo
    • 26
    • 28
  • Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea
    • 26
    • 29
  • Björn Lindkvist
    • 30
  • Jonas Manjer
    • 31
  • Ingegerd Johansson
    • 32
  • Weimin Ye
    • 33
  • Nadia Slimani
    • 4
  • Eric J. Duell
    • 4
  • Mazda Jenab
    • 4
  • Dominique S. Michaud
    • 20
  • Traci Mouw
    • 20
  • Elio Riboli
    • 20
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Clinical EpidemiologyGerman Cancer Research CentreHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)BilthovenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Julius CenterUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC–WHO)LyonFrance
  5. 5.Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human ServicesRockvilleUSA
  6. 6.New York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA
  7. 7.Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aalborg HospitalAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark
  8. 8.Institute of Cancer EpidemiologyDanish Cancer SocietyCopenhagenDenmark
  9. 9.Inserm ERI20, Paris XI University, Institut Gustave-RoussyVillejuifFrance
  10. 10.Department of Hygiene and EpidemiologyUniversity of Athens Medical SchoolAthensGreece
  11. 11.Department of EpidemiologyGerman Institute of Human NutritionPotsdam-RehbrückeGermany
  12. 12.MRC Dunn Human Nutrition UnitCambridgeUK
  13. 13.Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public HealthUniversity of Cambridge School of Clinical MedicineCambridgeUK
  14. 14.Cancer Epidemiology UnitUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  15. 15.Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology UnitCancer Research and Prevention Institute (ISPO)FlorenceItaly
  16. 16.Nutritional Epidemiology UnitNational Cancer InstituteMilanItaly
  17. 17.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly
  18. 18.Cancer Registry, Azienda Ospedaliera “Civile MP Arezzo”RagusaItaly
  19. 19.Environmental EpidemiologyImperial College LondonLondonUK
  20. 20.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthImperial College LondonLondonUK
  21. 21.Cancer Registry of NorwayInsititute of Population-Based Cancer ResearchOsloNorway
  22. 22.Institute of Community MedicineUniversity of TromsøTromsoNorway
  23. 23.Health and Health Services Council of Asturias, Public Health DirectorateAsturiasSpain
  24. 24.Unit of Nutrition, Environment and CancerCatalan Institute of OncologyBarcelonaSpain
  25. 25.Public Health Department of Gipuzkoa, Basque GovernmentGipuzkoaSpain
  26. 26.Ciber en Epidemiologia y Salud Pública (CIBERESP)MurciaSpain
  27. 27.Andalusian School of Public HealthGranadaSpain
  28. 28.Department of EpidemiologyMurcia Regional Health CouncilMurciaSpain
  29. 29.Public Health Institute of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  30. 30.Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal MedicineSahlgrenska University HospitalGothenburgSweden
  31. 31.Department of SurgeryMalmö University HospitalMalmoSweden
  32. 32.Department of Odontology, CardiologyUmeå University HospitalUmeaSweden
  33. 33.Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska InstituteStockholmSweden

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