Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 691–698 | Cite as

Vitamin and mineral use and risk of prostate cancer: the case–control surveillance study

  • Yuqing ZhangEmail author
  • Patricia Coogan
  • Julie R. Palmer
  • Brian L. Strom
  • Lynn Rosenberg
Original Paper



Many studies have evaluated the association between vitamin and mineral supplement use and the risk of prostate cancer, with inconclusive results.


The authors examined the relation of use of multivitamins as well as several single vitamin and mineral supplements to the risk of prostate cancer risk among 1,706 prostate cancer cases and 2,404 matched controls using data from the hospital-based case–control surveillance study conducted in the United States. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of prostate cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression model.


For use of multivitamins that did not contain zinc, the multivariable odds ratios of prostate cancer were 0.6 for 1–4 years, 0.8 for 5–9 years, and 1.2 for 10 years or more, respectively (p for trend = 0.70). Men who used zinc for ten years or more, either in a multivitamin or as a supplement, had an approximately two-fold (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.6) increased risk of prostate cancer. Vitamin E, beta-carotene, folate, and selenium use were not significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer.


The finding that long-term zinc intake from multivitamins or single supplements was associated with a doubling in risk of prostate cancer adds to the growing evidence for an unfavorable effect of zinc on prostate cancer carcinogenesis.


Case–control study multivitamin Prostate neoplasm 



Confidence interval


Odds ratio



This work was supported by grant CA45762 from the National Cancer Institute. Additional support was provided by grant FD-U-00082 from the Food and Drug Administration.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuqing Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Patricia Coogan
    • 2
  • Julie R. Palmer
    • 2
  • Brian L. Strom
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Lynn Rosenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, School of MedicineBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Slone Epidemiology CenterBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Center for Education and Research on TherapeuticsUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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