Prevalence, trend, and sociodemographic association of five modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cancer in Alberta and Canada
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To examine the 12-year trend, in Alberta and Canada, of five modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cancer, and their associations with sociodemographic factors.
Six surveys collected data from Canadians aged ≥12 years. The prevalence, trends, and sociodemographic association of five lifestyle risk factors (smoking, inactivity, excessive drinking, overweight/obesity, and insufficient fruit/vegetable intake) were examined.
Smoking and inactivity decreased significantly: by 5.4% and 2.7% (Alberta men) and 4.9% and 12.1% (Alberta women); by 7.5% and 8.5% (Canada men) and 7.7% and 11.9% (Canada women). Excessive drinking increased significantly: by 3.6% (men) and 0.9% (women), Alberta; by 2.5% (men) and 0.9% (women), Canada. Overweight/obesity significantly increased by 6.0% (Alberta) and 4.1% (Canada) in women. Being female, single, highly educated, or having higher income decreased the likelihood of exposure to multiple lifestyle risk factors; being middle aged, widowed/separated/divorced, or in poor health condition increased the likelihood.
The downward trends for smoking and physical inactivity were in a direction that may help reduce cancer burden. The excessive drinking and overweight/obesity trends did not change in desired direction and deserve attention. The clustering of the lifestyle risk factors in specific social groups provides useful information for future intervention planning.
KeywordsPrevalence Trend Lifestyle risk factors Sociodemographic factors Cancer
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