Advertisement

Cancer Causes & Control

, 19:1161 | Cite as

Dietary risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract in central and eastern Europe

  • A. Sapkota
  • C.  C. Hsu
  • D. Zaridze
  • O. Shangina
  • N. Szeszenia-Dabrowska
  • D. Mates
  • E. Fabiánová
  • P. Rudnai
  • V. Janout
  • I. Holcatova
  • P. Brennan
  • P. Boffetta
  • M. HashibeEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Objective

The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT: oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus) has been increasing in central and eastern European countries. We investigated the relationship between diet and UADT cancers in these high risk areas.

Methods

We used data from hospital-based case–control study of 948 UADT cancer cases and 1,228 controls conducted in Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, and Czech Republic. Standardized questionnaire were used to collect information on 23 different food items, along with alcohol and tobacco consumptions. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the UADT cancers after adjusting for center, age, sex, tobacco & alcohol intake, and other food groups.

Results

Consumption of dairy product was negatively associated with selected UADT cancers: larynx (OR: 0.38, CI: 0.23–0.62) and esophagus (OR: 0.55, CI: 0.33–0.93). While consumption of yellow/orange vegetables were inversely associated with oral/pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.35–0.81 and OR: 0.62, CI: 0.38–1.00, respectively), preserved vegetable was positively associated with oral/pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer risk (p trend < 0.01 for both).

Conclusion

Specific dietary components may play a role in the development of UADT cancers in the high-risk region of central and eastern Europe.

Keywords

UADT cancer Diet Oral/Pharyngeal cancer Laryngeal cancer Esophageal cancer 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by the World Cancer Research Fund and the European Commission’s INCO-COPERNICUS Program (Contract No. IC15-CT98–0332). The analysis reported in this article was undertaken during the tenures of Special Training Fellowships from IARC awarded to Dr. Amir Sapkota and Dr. Charles C. Hsu.

References

  1. 1.
    La Vecchia C, Lucchini F, Negri E, Levi F (2004) Trends in oral cancer mortality in Europe. Oral Oncol 40:433–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bray I, Brennan P, Boffetta P (2000) Projections of alcohol- and tobacco-related cancer mortality in Central Europe. Int J Cancer 87:122–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin DM, GLOBOCAN (2002) Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. IARC CancerBase No.5[2.0]. 2004. IARC Press, Lyon.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Forastiere A, Koch W, Trotti A, Sidransky D (2001) Head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 345:1890–1900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (2004) IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, vol. 83, Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC Press, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (2004) Betel-quid and areca-nut chewing and some areca-nut derived nitrosamines. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum 85:1–334Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Znaor A, Brennan P, Gajalakshmi V et al (2003) Independent and combined effects of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking on the risk of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal cancers in Indian men. Int J Cancer 105:681–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boffetta P, Hashibe M (2006) Alcohol and cancer. Lancet Oncol 7:149–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Corrao G, Bagnardi V, Zambon A, La Vecchia C (2004) A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of 15 diseases. Prev Med 38:613–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bosetti C, Gallus S, Franceschi S et al (2002) Cancer of the larynx in non-smoking alcohol drinkers and in non-drinking tobacco smokers. Br J Cancer 87:516–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fioretti F, Bosetti C, Tavani A, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C (1999) Risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancer in never smokers. Oral Oncol 35:375–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chyou PH, Nomura AMY, Stemmermann GN (1995) Alcohol, smoking and cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract - a prospective-study among Hawaii Japanese men. Int J Cancer 60:616–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (2003) IARC handbooks of cancer prevention: fruit and vegetables. Vainio H, Bianchini F. [8], 1–376. 2003. IARC Press, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research (1997) Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vainio H, Weiderpass E (2006) Fruit and vegetables in cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer 54:111–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Riboli E, Norat T (2003) Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 78:559S–569SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chainani-Wu N (2002) Diet and oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancer. Nutr Cancer 44:104–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rajkumar T, Sridhar H, Balaram P et al (2003) Oral cancer in Southern India: the influence of body size, diet, infections and sexual practices. Eur J Cancer Prev 12:135–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McLaughlin JK, Gridley G, Block G et al (1988) Dietary factors in oral and pharyngeal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 80:1237–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Franceschi S, Favero A, Conti E et al (1999) Food groups, oils and butter, and cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. Br J Cancer 80:614–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tavani A, Gallus S, La Vecchia C et al (2001) Diet and risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. An Italian case–control study. Eur J Cancer Prev 10:191–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Levi F, Pasche C, La Vecchia C, Lucchini F, Franceschi S, Monnier P (1998) Food groups and risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Int J Cancer 77:705–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Levi F, Pasche C, Lucchini F et al (2000) Food groups and oesophageal cancer risk in Vaud, Switzerland. Eur J Cancer Prev 9:257–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Stefani E, Munoz N, Esteve J, Vasallo A, Victora CG, Teuchmann S (1990) Mate drinking, alcohol, tobacco, diet, and esophageal cancer in Uruguay. Cancer Res 50:426–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li K, Yu P (2003) Food groups and risk of esophageal cancer in Chaoshan region of China: a high-risk area of esophageal cancer. Cancer Investig 21:237–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sharp L, Chilvers CE, Cheng KK et al (2001) Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus in women: a case–control study. Br J Cancer 85:1667–1670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gallus S, Bosetti C, Franceschi S, Levi F, Negri E, La Vecchia C (2003) Laryngeal cancer in women: Tobacco, alcohol, nutritional, and hormonal factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:514–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kjaerheim K, Gaard M, Andersen A (1998) The role of alcohol, tobacco, and dietary factors in upper aerogastric tract cancers: a prospective study of 10, 900 Norwegian men. Cancer Causes Control 9:99–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kasum CM, Jacobs DR, Nicodemus K, Folsom AR (2002) Dietary risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Int J Cancer 99:267–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boeing H, Dietrich T, Hoffmann K et al (2006) Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract: the prospective EPIC-study. Cancer Causes Control 17:957–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Ronco AL et al (2003) Food groups and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus: a case–control study in Uruguay. Br J Cancer 89:1209–1214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Talamini R et al (2002) Food groups and laryngeal cancer risk: a case–control study from Italy and Switzerland. Int J Cancer 100:355–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Levi F, Pasche C, Lucchini F, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C (2004) Processed meat and the risk of selected digestive tract and laryngeal neoplasms in Switzerland. Ann Oncol 15:346–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lissowska J, Pilarska A, Pilarski P et al (2003) Smoking, alcohol, diet, dentition and sexual practices in the epidemiology of oral cancer in Poland. Eur J Cancer Prev 12:25–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Boffetta P, Mendilaharsu M (1999) Meat intake and risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer: a case–control study in Uruguay. Int J Cancer 82:33–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Petridou E, Zavras AI, Lefatzis D et al (2002) The role of diet and specific micronutrients in the etiology of oral carcinoma. Cancer 94:2981–2988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Talamini R et al (2000) Food groups and risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer in northern Italy. Int J Cancer 87:289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bosetti C, Gallus S, Trichopoulou A et al (2003) Influence of the Mediterranean diet on the risk of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:1091–1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Scelo G, Constantinescu V, Csiki I et al (2004) Occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, acrylonitirile and styrene and lung cancer risk (Europe). Cancer Causes Control 15:445–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hsu CC, Chow WH, Boffetta P et al (2007) Dietary risk factors for kidney cancer in eastern and central Europe. Am J Epidemiol 166(1):62–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lampe JW (1999) Health effects of vegetables and fruit: assessing mechanisms of action in human experimental studies. Am J Clin Nutr 70:475S–490SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    La Vecchia C, Negri E, D’Avanzo B, Boyle P, Franceschi S (1991) Dietary indicators of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Int J Epidemiol. 20:39–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Notani PN, Jayant K (1987) Role of diet in upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Nutr Cancer 10:103–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shantha NC, Ram LN, Oleary J, Hicks CL, Decker EA (1995) Conjugated linoleic-acid concentrations in dairy-products as affected by processing and storage. J Food Sci 60:695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aneja RP, Murthi TN (1990) Conjugated linoleic acid contents of Indian curds and ghee. Indian J. Dairy Sci 43:231–238Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Whigham LD, Cook ME, Atkinson RL (2000) Conjugated linoleic acid: implications for human health. Pharmacol Res 42:503–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Talamini R et al (2005) Role of fried foods and oral/pharyngeal and oesophageal cancers. Br J Cancer 92:2065–2069PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Felton JS, Knize MG, Wood C et al (1984) Isolation and characterization of new mutagens from fried ground beef. Carcinogenesis 5:95–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ito N, Hasegawa R, Sano M et al (1991) A new colon and mammary carcinogen in cooked food, 2-amino–1-methyl–6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP). Carcinogenesis 12:1503–1506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Terry PD, Lagergren J, Wolk A, Steineck G, Nyren O (2003) Dietary intake of heterocyclic amines and cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:940–944PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Sapkota
    • 1
    • 2
  • C.  C. Hsu
    • 1
    • 3
  • D. Zaridze
    • 4
  • O. Shangina
    • 4
  • N. Szeszenia-Dabrowska
    • 5
  • D. Mates
    • 6
  • E. Fabiánová
    • 7
  • P. Rudnai
    • 8
  • V. Janout
    • 9
  • I. Holcatova
    • 10
  • P. Brennan
    • 1
  • P. Boffetta
    • 1
  • M. Hashibe
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Lifestyle, Environment and Cancer GroupInternational Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance
  2. 2.University of Maryland College Park School of Public HealthCollege ParkUSA
  3. 3.Johns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Cancer Research CenterMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Institute of Occupational MedicineLodzPoland
  6. 6.Institute of Hygiene, Public Health, Health Services, and ManagementBucharestRomania
  7. 7.Specialized State Health InstituteBanská BystricaSlovakia
  8. 8.National Institute of Environmental HealthBudapestHungary
  9. 9.Department of Preventive MedicinePalacky University of MedicineOlomoucCzech Republic
  10. 10.Institute of Hygiene and EpidemiologyCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations