Vitamin E and selenium supplementation and risk of prostate cancer in the Vitamins and lifestyle (VITAL) study cohort
- 387 Downloads
Vitamin E and selenium are promising nutrients for the prevention of prostate cancer, and both are currently being tested in a large randomized trial for prostate cancer. However, results are not expected for at least 6 years.
We aimed to investigate the association of vitamin E and selenium supplementation with prostate cancer in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study, a cohort study specifically designed to examine supplement use and future cancer risk.
In a prospective design, 35,242 men recruited between 2000 and 2002 from western Washington State completed a questionnaire, including detailed questions about vitamin E and selenium supplement intake during the past 10 years from brand-specific multivitamins and single supplements. Using linkage to the western Washington SEER cancer registry, we documented 830 new cases of prostate cancer from baseline through December 2004.
A 10-year average intake of supplemental vitamin E was not associated with a reduced prostate cancer risk overall [hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65–1.1 for ≥400 IU/day vs. non-use, p for trend 0.36]; however, risk for advanced prostate cancer (regionally invasive or distant metastatic, n = 123) decreased significantly with greater intake of supplemental vitamin E (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.19–1.0 for 10-year average intake ≥400 IU/day vs. non-use, p for trend 0.03). There was no association between selenium supplementation and prostate cancer risk (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.62–1.3 for 10-year average intake >50 μg/day vs. non-use, p for trend 0.97).
In this prospective cohort, long-term supplemental intake of vitamin E and selenium were not associated with prostate cancer risk overall; however, risk of clinically relevant advanced disease was reduced with greater long-term vitamin E supplementation.
KeywordsProstate cancer Vitamin E Selenium Vitamin supplements Cohort
- VITAL cohort
Vitamins and lifestyle cohort
We thank the participants of the Vitamins and Lifestyle study for their support. All authors were responsible for the study concept and design, and participated in writing the manuscript. AJL analyzed the data and UP drafted the manuscript. None of the authors had a personal or financial conflict of interest. Grant support: Supported by grant R01 CA74846, the Career Development grant K22 CA118421 and the Cancer Prevention training grant R25T CA94880 from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services.
- 12.Dial S, Eitenmiller RR (1995) Tocopherols and tocotrienols in key foods in the U.S. diet. In: Ong ASH, Niki E, Packer L (eds) Nutrition, lipids, health, and disease. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, pp 327–342Google Scholar
- 14.Institute of Medicine I (2000) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy PressGoogle Scholar
- 19.Schwarz K, Foltz C (1957) J Am Chem Soc 79, 3292Google Scholar
- 20.Grossman JN, Grosz AE, Schweitzer PN, Schruben PN (2005) The National Geochemical Survey Team . The National Geochemical Survey–Database and Documentation. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004–1001. http://tin.er.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/averages/se/usa.html
- 25.Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, Turnbull BW et al (2002) Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:630–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 36.Medical Economics Staff (2002) Physicians Desk Reference for Nonprescription Drugs and Dietary Supplements. Medical Economics, MontvaleGoogle Scholar
- 38.Satia JA, King IB, Morris JS, Stratton K, White E (2005) Toenail and Plasma Levels as Biomarkers of Selenium Exposure. Ann EpidemiolGoogle Scholar
- 39.Kristal AR, Feng Z, Coates RJ, Oberman A, George V (1997) Associations of race/ethnicity, education, and dietary intervention with the validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire: the Women’s Health Trial Feasibility Study in Minority Populations. Am J Epidemiol 146:856–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 43.Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S (1999) Applied survival analysis: regression modeling of time to event data. Wiley series in probability and statistics. Texts and references section. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 60.Knekt P, Aromaa A, Maatela J et al (1988) Serum vitamin E and risk of cancer among Finnish men during a 10-year follow-up. Am J of Epidemiol 127(2): 28–41Google Scholar