Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 25–31 | Cite as

Cigarette smoking and prostate cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis in middle-aged men

  • Zhihong Gong
  • Ilir Agalliu
  • Daniel W. Lin
  • Janet L. Stanford
  • Alan R. Kristal
Original Paper

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to examine associations of smoking at the time of diagnosis with the risk of prostate cancer death in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer.

Methods

Data were from 752 prostate cancer patients aged 40–64 years, who were enrolled in a case–control study and under long-term follow-up for mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between smoking and prostate cancer-specific and other cause mortality.

Results

Compared to never smoking, smoking at the time of diagnosis was associated with a significant increase in risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality. After controlling for demographic characteristics, Gleason grade, stage at diagnosis, and primary treatment, the HR was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.10–6.43).

Conclusions

Smoking at the time of diagnosis, independent of key clinical prognostic factors, is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death.

Keywords

Cigarette smoking Prostate cancer-specific mortality Cancer outcomes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Supported by grants P50-CA97186, RO1-CA56678, and contract N01-CN-05230 from the National Cancer Institute, NIH, with additional support from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhihong Gong
    • 1
  • Ilir Agalliu
    • 1
  • Daniel W. Lin
    • 2
  • Janet L. Stanford
    • 1
    • 3
  • Alan R. Kristal
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Public Health SciencesFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyUniversity of Washington Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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