Cigarette smoking and prostate cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis in middle-aged men
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The aim of this study was to examine associations of smoking at the time of diagnosis with the risk of prostate cancer death in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer.
Data were from 752 prostate cancer patients aged 40–64 years, who were enrolled in a case–control study and under long-term follow-up for mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between smoking and prostate cancer-specific and other cause mortality.
Compared to never smoking, smoking at the time of diagnosis was associated with a significant increase in risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality. After controlling for demographic characteristics, Gleason grade, stage at diagnosis, and primary treatment, the HR was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.10–6.43).
Smoking at the time of diagnosis, independent of key clinical prognostic factors, is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death.
KeywordsCigarette smoking Prostate cancer-specific mortality Cancer outcomes
Supported by grants P50-CA97186, RO1-CA56678, and contract N01-CN-05230 from the National Cancer Institute, NIH, with additional support from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.
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