Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 295–304

Ambient UV, personal sun exposure and risk of multiple primary melanomas

  • Anne Kricker
  • Bruce K. Armstrong
  • Chris Goumas
  • Melisa Litchfield
  • Colin B. Begg
  • Amanda J. Hummer
  • Loraine D. Marrett
  • Beth Theis
  • Robert C. Millikan
  • Nancy Thomas
  • Hoda Anton Culver
  • Richard P. Gallagher
  • Terence Dwyer
  • Timothy R. Rebbeck
  • Peter A. Kanetsky
  • Klaus Busam
  • Lynn From
  • Urvi Mujumdar
  • Roberto Zanetti
  • Marianne Berwick
  • for the GEM Study Group
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-006-0091-x

Cite this article as:
Kricker, A., Armstrong, B.K., Goumas, C. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2007) 18: 295. doi:10.1007/s10552-006-0091-x

Abstract

Objective

Sun exposure is the main cause of melanoma in populations of European origin. No previous study has examined the effect of sun exposure on risk of multiple primary melanomas compared with people who have one melanoma.

Methods

We identified and enrolled 2,023 people with a first primary melanoma (controls) and 1,125 with multiple primary melanomas (cases) in seven centers in four countries, recorded their residential history to assign ambient UV and interviewed them about their sun exposure.

Results

Risk of multiple primary melanomas increased significantly (P < 0.05) to OR = 2.10 for the highest exposure quarter of ambient UV irradiance at birth and 10 years of age, to OR = 1.38 for lifetime recreational sun exposure, to OR = 1.85 for beach and waterside activities, to OR = 1.57 for vacations in a sunnier climate, to OR = 1.50 for sunburns. Occupational sun exposure did not increase risk (OR = 1.03 for highest exposure). Recreational exposure at any age increased risk and appeared to add to risk from ambient UV in early life.

Conclusions

People who have had a melanoma can expect to reduce their risk of a further melanoma by reducing recreational sun exposure whatever their age. The same is probably true for a person who has never had a melanoma.

Keywords

Melanoma Multiple primary neoplasms Sunlight Case-control studies 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Kricker
    • 1
  • Bruce K. Armstrong
    • 1
  • Chris Goumas
    • 1
  • Melisa Litchfield
    • 1
  • Colin B. Begg
    • 2
  • Amanda J. Hummer
    • 2
  • Loraine D. Marrett
    • 3
  • Beth Theis
    • 3
  • Robert C. Millikan
    • 4
  • Nancy Thomas
    • 4
  • Hoda Anton Culver
    • 5
  • Richard P. Gallagher
    • 6
  • Terence Dwyer
    • 7
  • Timothy R. Rebbeck
    • 8
  • Peter A. Kanetsky
    • 8
  • Klaus Busam
    • 2
  • Lynn From
    • 9
  • Urvi Mujumdar
    • 2
  • Roberto Zanetti
    • 10
  • Marianne Berwick
    • 11
  • for the GEM Study Group
  1. 1.School of Public HealthUniversity of SydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Cancer Care OntarioTorontoCanada
  4. 4.University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  5. 5.University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  6. 6.British Columbia Cancer AgencyVancouverCanada
  7. 7.Murdoch Children’s Research InstituteParkvilleAustralia
  8. 8.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  9. 9.Women’s College HospitalTorontoCanada
  10. 10.Centro per la Prevenzione OncologiaTorinoItaly
  11. 11.University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

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