Advertisement

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 10, pp 1305–1309 | Cite as

The effect of occasional smoking on smoking-related cancers

In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • Bine Kjøller Bjerregaard
  • Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
  • Mette Sørensen
  • Kirsten Frederiksen
  • Anne Tjønneland
  • Sabine Rohrmann
  • Jakob Linseisen
  • Manuela M. Bergman
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Sabina Sieri
  • Domenico Palli
  • Rosario Tumino
  • Carlotta Sacerdote
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
  • Frederike L. Büchner
  • Inger Torhild Gram
  • Tonje Braaten
  • Eiliv Lund
  • Göran Hallmans
  • Åsa Ågren
  • Elio Riboli
Brief Report

Abstract

Objective

Most studies on tobacco smoking have focused on daily-smokers. Occasional smokers, who have never smoked daily, have often been included in the reference group of never-smokers. We have investigated the association between occasional smoking and cancer of the bladder, kidney, pancreas, upper aero-digestive tract and lung.

Methods

The study population consisted of 158,488 persons, who provided information on occasional smoking, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 780 of whom developed a smoking-related cancer. We used Cox proportional hazard model, stratified by gender and country to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for smoking-related cancers.

Results

The results suggest that occasional smokers have a higher risk of bladder cancer (IRR: 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93–3.98) and of the major smoking-related cancers combined (IRR: 1.24, 95% CI 0.80–1.94) than true never-smokers. Including occasional smokers in the reference group resulted in a lower risk estimate for former and current smokers.

Conclusions

Occasional smoking should be discouraged.

Keywords

Cancer Cohort Study Epidemiology Tobacco smoke 

Abbreviations

IRR

Incidence rate ratio

CI

Confidence intervals

EPIC

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank all the participants in EPIC.

References

  1. 1.
    IARC (2004) IARC monographs Vol. 83: tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hammond EC, Horn D (1958) Smoking and death rates; report on forty-four months of follow-up of 187,783 men. II. Death rates by cause. J Am Med Assoc 166:1294–1308Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hammond EC, Horn D (1958) Smoking and death rates; report on forty-four months of follow-up of 187,783 men. I. Total mortality. J Am Med Assoc 166:1159–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nordlund LA, Carstensen JM, Pershagen G (1999) Are male and female smokers at equal risk of smoking-related cancer: evidence from a Swedish prospective study. Scand J Public Health 27:56–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luoto R, Uutela A, Puska P (2000) Occasional smoking increases total and cardiovascular mortality among men. Nicotine Tob Res 2:133–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hovengen R, Haug K (2003) Occasional smoking during pregnancy and after birth: a challenge for mother and child health care. Eur J Public Health 13:46–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Riboli E, Hunt KJ, Slimani N, et al (2002) European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection. Public Health Nutr 5:1113–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Greenland S (1995) Dose-response and trend analysis in epidemiology: alternatives to categorical analysis. Epidemiology 6:356–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Holmen TL, Barrett-Connor E, Holmen J, Bjermer L (2000) Adolescent occasional smokers, a target group for smoking cessation? the Nord-Trondelag Health Study, Norway, 1995–1997. Prev Med 31:682–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Maggi S, Linn G, Marion SA (2005) Are questions from the Italian National Health Survey adequate to measure prevalence of smoking among teens. Subst Use Misuse 40:779–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hassmiller KM, Warner KE, Mendez D, Levy DT, Romano E (2003) Nondaily smokers: who are they? Am J Public Health 93:1321–1327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lindstrom M, Isacsson SO (2002) Long term and transitional intermittent smokers: a longitudinal study. Tob Control 11:61–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Akiba S, Hirayama T (1990) Cigarette smoking and cancer mortality risk in Japanese men and women—results from reanalysis of the six-prefecture cohort study data. Environ Health Perspect 87:19–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tuyns AJ, Esteve J, Raymond L, et al (1988) Cancer of the larynx/hypopharynx, tobacco and alcohol: IARC international case-control study in Turin and Varese (Italy), Zaragoza and Navarra (Spain), Geneva (Switzerland) and Calvados (France). Int J Cancer 41:483–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Engeland A, Andersen A, Haldorsen T, Tretli S (1996) Smoking habits and risk of cancers other than lung cancer: 28 years’ follow-up of 26,000 Norwegian men and women. Cancer Causes Control 7:497–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brennan P, Bogillot O, Greiser E, et al (2001) The contribution of cigarette smoking to bladder cancer in women (pooled European data). Cancer Causes Control 12:411–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brennan P, Buffler PA, Reynolds P, et al (2004) Secondhand smoke exposure in adulthood and risk of lung cancer among never smokers: a pooled analysis of two large studies. Int J Cancer 109:125–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vineis P, Airoldi L, Veglia P, et al (2005) Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of respiratory cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in former smokers and never smokers in the EPIC prospective study. BMJ 330:277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hovengen R, Haug K (2003) Occasional smoking during pregnancy and after birth: a challenge for mother and child health care. Eur J Public Health 13:46–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hovengen R, Nordhagen R (2004) [Occasional smoking–an increasing problem]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 124:3222–3223PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bine Kjøller Bjerregaard
    • 1
  • Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
    • 1
  • Mette Sørensen
    • 1
  • Kirsten Frederiksen
    • 1
  • Anne Tjønneland
    • 1
  • Sabine Rohrmann
    • 2
  • Jakob Linseisen
    • 2
  • Manuela M. Bergman
    • 3
  • Heiner Boeing
    • 3
  • Sabina Sieri
    • 4
  • Domenico Palli
    • 5
  • Rosario Tumino
    • 6
  • Carlotta Sacerdote
    • 7
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
    • 8
  • Frederike L. Büchner
    • 8
  • Inger Torhild Gram
    • 9
  • Tonje Braaten
    • 9
  • Eiliv Lund
    • 9
  • Göran Hallmans
    • 10
  • Åsa Ågren
    • 10
  • Elio Riboli
    • 11
  1. 1.Institute of Cancer EpidemiologyDanish Cancer SocietyCopenhagen ØDenmark
  2. 2.Division of Clinical EpidemiologyGerman Cancer Research CentreHeidelbergGermany
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyGerman Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-RehbrückeNuthetalGermany
  4. 4.Nutritional Epidemiology UnitNational Cancer InstituteMilanItaly
  5. 5.Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology UnitCSPO-Scientific Institute of TuscanyFlorenceItaly
  6. 6.Cancer RegistryAzienda Ospedaliera “Civile M.P. Arezzo”RagusaItaly
  7. 7.Servizio di Epidemiologia dei TumoriUniversitá di TorinoTorinoItaly
  8. 8.National Institute for Public Health and the EnvironmentCentre for Nutrition and HealthBilthovenNetherlands
  9. 9.University of TromsøTromsøNorway
  10. 10.Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional researchUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  11. 11.International Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance

Personalised recommendations