UV, latitude, and spatial trends in prostate cancer mortality: All sunlight is not the same (United States)
- 407 Downloads
We showed previously that Caucasian mortality rates from prostate cancer for 1970–1979 are significantly inversely correlated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We now present the analysis of prostate cancer mortality data over a 45-year period (1950–1994) in order to examine the persistence of this pattern. Furthermore, because vitamin D synthesis does not occur during winter months at latitudes higher than 40° N, we examined this relationship above and below 40° N latitude.
We used trend surface and linear regression analyses to characterize the relationship between prostate cancer mortality and UV radiation for U.S. counties at northern and southern latitudes.
For U.S. Caucasians, prostate cancer mortality rates at the county and SEA levels followed a significant north–south spatial trend that is the inverse of UV radiation. We found significant inverse correlations between UV radiation and prostate cancer mortality at all time points over this 45-year period. These correlations were significantly more pronounced at locations north of 40° N latitude.
Our analyses confirm and extend our findings that the geographic distribution of prostate cancer mortality is the inverse of that of UV radiation. This effect is strongest in counties north of 40° N latitude, where vitamin D synthesis is limited to non-winter months. These findings add additional support for the hypothesis that vitamin D insufficiency increases risk for prostate cancer.
KeywordsProstate cancer Vitamin D Sunlight Epidemiology Ultraviolet radiation
- 3.Lim H-S, Roychoudhuri R, Peto J, Schwartz G, Baade P, Moller H (2006) Cancer survival depends on season of diagnosis and sunlight exposure. Int J Cancer (in press)Google Scholar
- 7.Holick, MF 1997Photobiology of vitamin DFeldman, DGloriexux, FHPike, JW eds. Vitamin D1Academic PressSan Diego, CA3339Google Scholar
- 17.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2002) UV radiation and UV index information. Available at http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/stratosphere/uv_index/uv_information.html Google Scholar
- 19.Devesa SS, Grauman DJ, Blot WJ, Pennello G, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF Jr (1999)Atlas of cancer mortality in the United States, 1950–94. Washington, DC: US Govt Print Off; [NIH Publ No. (NIH) 99–4564]. Available at http://www3.cancer.gov/atlasplus/ Google Scholar
- 21.O’Sullivan, D, Unwin, DJ 2003Geographic information analysisJohn Wiley & Sons, IncHoboken, NJ256263Google Scholar
- 24.Scotto J, Fears TR, Gori GB (1974) Measurements from ultraviolet meters at ten locations in the United States during 1974 and comparisons with recent skin cancer data. DHEW Publ. No. (NIH) 76–1029. Bethesda, MD, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Cause and PreventionGoogle Scholar
- 28.Rosner, B 1995Fundamentals of biostatistics4Duxbury PressBostonGoogle Scholar
- 31.Cleek, RK 1979Cancers and the environment: the effect of scaleSoc Sci Med13D241247Google Scholar
- 42.Reisinger, M 2003Sectoral shifts and occupational migration in the United StatesProf Geogr55383395Google Scholar
- 45.Boscoe F (2006) The protective effect of sunlight exposure against colorectal and prostate cancer mortality. Paper presented at the 102nd annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers. Chicago, IL, March 9, 2006. Published abstract available at: http://communicate.aag.org/eseries/aag_org/program/AbstractDetail.cfm?AbstractID=8931 Google Scholar
- 47.Walsh, PC, Worthington, JF 1995The prostate: a guide for menJohns Hopkins Uninversity PressBaltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
- 49.Weinrich, S, Ellison, G, Weinrich, M, Ross, K, Reis-Starr, C 2001Low sun exposure and elevated serum prostate specific antigen in African American and Caucasian menAm J Health Stud17148150Google Scholar